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      Chronic Metabolic Acidosis in Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Background: Metabolic acidosis may be diagnosed as chronic (cMA) if it persists for at least 5 days, although an exact definition has not been provided by any guidelines yet. The most common cause is CKD; numerous less-known diseases can also account for cMA. Summary: In recent years, CKD-associated cMA has been proposed to induce several clinical complications. The aim of the article was to assess the current clinical evidence for complications and the respective management of CKD-associated cMA. In summary, cMA in CKD most likely promotes protein degradation and loss of bone mineral density. It aggravates CKD progression as indicated by experimental and (partly) clinical data. Therefore, cMA control must be recommended. Besides oral bicarbonate, dietary interventions potentially offer an alternative. Veverimer is a future option for cMA control; further systematic data are needed. Conclusions: The most common cause of cMA is CKD. CKD-associated cMA most likely induces a negative protein balance; the exact role on bone metabolism remains uncertain. It presumably aggravates CKD progression. cMA control is recommendable; the serum bicarbonate target level should range around 24 mEq/L. Veverimer may be established as future option for cMA control; further systematic data are needed.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Ammonia Transporters and Their Role in Acid-Base Balance

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            Fruit and Vegetable Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Related Metabolic Acidosis Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Better than Sodium Bicarbonate

            Background: Current guidelines recommend treatment of metabolic acidosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with sodium-based alkali. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with base-producing fruits and vegetables (F + V) better improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indicators than oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ). Methods: We randomized 108 macroalbuminuric, matched, nondiabetic CKD patients with metabolic acidosis to F + V ( n = 36) in amounts to reduce dietary acid by half, oral NaHCO 3 (HCO 3 , n = 36) 0.3 mEq/kg bw/day, or to Usual Care (UC, n = 36) to assess the 5-year effect of these interventions on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) course as the primary analysis and on indicators of CVD risk as the secondary analysis. Results: Five-year plasma total CO 2 was higher in HCO 3 and F + V than UC but was not different between HCO 3 and F + V (difference p value 3 (mean –12.3, 95% CI –12.9 to –11.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and F + V (–10.0, 95% CI –10.6 to –9.4 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) than UC (–18.8, 95% CI –19.5 to –18.2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; p value 3 and F + V. Five-year systolic blood pressure was lower in F + V than UC and HCO 3 ( p value 3 and UC at 5 years. Conclusion: Metabolic acidosis improvement and eGFR preservation were comparable in CKD patients treated with F + V or oral NaHCO 3 but F + V better improved CVD risk indicators, making it a potentially better treatment option for reducing CVD risk.
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              Fibroblast growth factor 23-related osteomalacia caused by the prolonged administration of saccharated ferric oxide.

              A 44-year-old woman with iron deficiency anemia was on a continuous course of intravenous saccharated ferric oxide (SFO). She came to our hospital because of right hip joint pain. She was found to have hypophosphatemia caused by impaired phosphorus resorption and her fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels were elevated. Therefore, she was diagnosed with FGF-23-related osteomalacia due to SFO administration. Discontinuation of the SFO treatment rapidly improved the impaired phosphorus resorption and also normalized the blood levels of phosphorus and FGF-23. During the treatment with SFO, it is important to regularly measure the blood levels of phosphorus in order to prevent the occurrence of osteomalacia.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                02 December 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 812-822
                Zentrum Innere Medizin 1, Kardiologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie, Klinikum Brandenburg, Medizinische Hochschule Brandenburg (MHB), Brandenburg, Germany
                Author notes
                *Daniel Patschan, Zentrum für Innere Medizin 1, Kardiologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie, Medizinische Hochschule Brandenburg, Hochstraße 29, DE–14770 Brandenburg (Germany),
                510829 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:812–822
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 11
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