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      Genotype-by-environment interaction in coast redwood outside natural distribution - search for environmental cues

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          Abstract

          Background

          Effective matching of genotypes and environments is required for the species to reach optimal productivity and act effectively for carbon sequestration. A common garden experiment across five different environments was undertaken to assess genotype x environment interaction (GxE) of coast redwood in order to understand the performance of genotypes across environments.

          Results

          The quantitative genetic analysis discovered no GxE between investigated environments for diameter at breast height (DBH). However, no genetic component was detected at one environment possibly due to stressful conditions. The implementation of universal response function allowed for the identification of important environmental factors affecting species productivity. Additionally, this approach enabled us to predict the performance of species across the New Zealand environmental conditions.

          Conclusions

          In combination with quantitative genetic analysis which identified genetically superior material, the URF model can directly identify the optimal geographical regions to maximize productivity. However, the finding of ideally uncorrelated climatic variables for species with narrow ecological amplitude is rather challenging, which complicates construction of informative URF model. This, along with a small number of tested environments, tended to overfit a prediction model which resulted in extreme predictions in untested environments.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Heritable variation and evolution under favourable and unfavourable conditions.

          Genetic variability in quantitative traits can change as a direct response to the environmental conditions in which they are expressed. Consequently, similar selection in different environments might not be equally effective in leading to adaptation. Several hypotheses, including recent ones that focus on the historical impact of selection on populations, predict that the expression of genetic variation will increase in unfavourable conditions. However, other hypotheses lead to the opposite prediction. Although a consensus is unlikely, recent Drosophila and bird studies suggest consistent trends for morphological traits under particular conditions.
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            Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants

             T. E. Dawson (1998)
            Fog has been viewed as an important source of moisture in many coastal ecosystems, yet its importance for the plants which inhabit these ecosystems is virtually unknown. Here, I report the results of a 3-year investigation of fog inputs and the use of fog water by plants inhabiting the heavily fog inundated coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests of northern California. During the study period, 34%, on average, of the annual hydrologic input was from fog drip off the redwood trees themselves (interception input). When trees were absent, the average annual input from fog was only 17%, demonstrating that the trees significantly influence the magnitude of fog water input to the ecosystem. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of water from fog, rain, soil water, and xylem water extracted from the dominant plant species were used to characterize the water sources used by the plants. An isotopic mixing model was employed to then quantify how much fog water each plant used each month during the 3-year study. In summer, when fog was most frequent, ∼19% of the water within S.sempervirens, and ∼66% of the water within the understory plants came from fog after it had dripped from tree foliage into the soil; for S.sempervirens, this fog water input comprised 13-45% of its annual transpiration. For all plants, there was a significant reliance on fog as a water source, especially in summer when rainfall was absent. Dependence on fog as a moisture source was highest in the year when rainfall was lowest but fog inputs normal. Interestingly, during the mild El Niño year of 1993, when the ratio of rainfall to fog water input was significantly higher and fog inputs were lower, both the proportion and coefficient of variation in how much fog water was used by plants increased. An explanation for this is that while fog inputs were lower than normal in this El Niño year, they came at a time when plant demand for water was highest (summer). Therefore, proportional use of fog water by plants increased. The results presented suggest that fog, as a meteorological factor, plays an important role in the water relations of the plants and in the hydrology of the forest. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding the impacts of climatic factors and their oscillations on the biota. The results have important implications for ecologists, hydrologists, and forest managers interested in fog-inundated ecosystems and the plants which inhabit them.
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              Altitudinal differentiation in growth and phenology among populations of temperate-zone tree species growing in a common garden

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Jaroslav.Klapste@scionresearch.com
                Dean.Meason@scionresearch.com
                Heidi.Dungey@scionresearch.com
                Emily.Telfer@scionresearch.com
                paul.s@nzforestry.co.nz
                simon@nzredwood.co.nz
                Journal
                BMC Genet
                BMC Genet
                BMC Genetics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2156
                10 February 2020
                10 February 2020
                2020
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9203, GRID grid.457328.f, Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.), ; 49 Sala Street, Rotorua, 3010 New Zealand
                [2 ]NZ Forestry Ltd., 701A Pollen Street, Thames, 3500 New Zealand
                [3 ]The New Zealand Redwood Company, P.O. Box 1343, Taupō, 3351 New Zealand
                Article
                821
                10.1186/s12863-020-0821-1
                7011450
                32041527
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008640, Ministry of Primary Industries;
                Award ID: 404886
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

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