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Lupinus elegans Kunth assisted migration in common garden field test Translated title: Migración asistida de Lupinus elegans Kunth en ensayos de jardín común en campo

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      Abstract

      Lupinus elegans is a species used in ecological restoration and agroforestry programs, because it is tolerant to stress and fixes nitrogen. Genetic variation in quantitative traits was studied in six populations of L. elegans collected along an altitudinal gradient (2312 to 2885 m) in the Mil Cumbres region, east-central Michoacán state, México. Provenance tests were planted at 2600 and 2800 m altitude in two common garden field trials. Tests aimed to evaluate the performance at a different altitude than the site of the seed source, simulating an altitudinal-assisted migration. Survival, plant height growth and aerial biomass were measured. For each provenance and experimental sites, climatic variables were estimated for contemporary climate (average 1961-1990) and future climate (decade centered in 2030, by averaging six model scenarios). It was estimated that by the year 2030 there will be, on average, an increment of 1.4 °C in mean annual temperature, an increase of 518 degree-days > 5 °C (DD5), a 90 mm decrease in mean annual precipitation (MAP) (-7.3 % of contemporary MAP), and a 0.0077 increase in an aridity index (DD5(0.5)/MAP). An ANOVA for each site revealed that in the higher altitude site (2800 m) populations exhibited a pronounced pattern of genetic differentiation (P = 0.0001), in which plant height and biomass are associated with the transfer distance between their place of origin and the experimental site. This distance can be expressed in difference in altitude, mean annual temperature, or aridity index. At the site at higher altitude, plants originated from populations growing at higher altitudes were taller and had more biomass than those originated grown at lower altitudes (R² ≥ 0.85, P ≤ 0.0302). In contrast, in the lower altitude site (2600 m), although there were nearly significant differences (P ≤ 0.0615) between populations for all of the variables, there was no clinal pattern. In general, the populations grew less when they were moved away from their original climate: those from the higher altitudes grew less in the 2600 m site, and those from the lower altitudes grew less in the 2800 m site. This indicates that climate change will likely induce less growth in several populations, thus it is recommended to promote gradual assisted migration.

      Translated abstract

      Lupinus elegans es una especie que se ha utilizado en la restauración ecológica y programas agroforestales, ya que es tolerante al estrés y fija nitrógeno. La variación genética en los rasgos cuantitativos se estudió en seis poblaciones de L. elegans originadas a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal (2312-2885 m) en la región de Mil Cumbres, Estado de Michoacán, el centro-este de México. Se plantaron ensayos de procedencias a 2600 y 2800 m de altitud, en dos ensayos de jardín común en campo. Los ensayos pretendieron evaluar el rendimiento a una altitud diferente del lugar de origen de la fuente de semilla, para simular una migración asistida altitudinal. Se midió la supervivencia, crecimiento en altura de planta y biomasa aérea. Para cada procedencia y sitio experimental, se estimaron variables climáticas para el clima contemporáneo (promedio 1961-1990) y el clima futuro (década centrada en el año 2030, con un promedio de seis modelos-escenarios). Se estima que para el año 2030 habrá, en promedio, un incremento de 1.4 °C en la temperatura media anual, un aumento de 518 grados días > 5 °C (DD5), una disminución de 90 mm de precipitación anual media (MAP) (-7.3 % del MAP contemporánea), y un aumento de 0.0077 en un índice de aridez (DD5(0.5)/MAP). Un ANOVA para cada sitio reveló que en el sitio de mayor altitud (2800 m) las poblaciones mostraron un patrón pronunciado de diferenciación genética (P = 0.0001), en el que la altura de planta y la biomasa están asociadas con la distancia de transferencia entre su lugar de origen y el sitio experimental. Esta distancia se puede expresar como diferencia en altitud, en temperatura media anual, o en índice de aridez. En el sitio de ensayo a mayor altitud, las plantas de poblaciones originadas a mayor altitud tuvieron mayor altura de planta y biomasa que las plantas de las poblaciones originadas a menor altitud (R² ≥ 0.85, P ≤ 0.0302). En contraste, en el sitio de ensayo a una altitud más baja (2600 m), aunque hubo diferencias casi significativas (P ≤ 0.0615) entre las poblaciones para todas las variables, no hubo un patrón clinal. En general, las poblaciones crecieron menos cuando se movieron lejos de su clima original: las procedentes de mayores altitudes crecieron menos en el sitio de 2600 m, y las procedentes de menores altitudes crecieron menos en el sitio de 2800 m. Esto indica que el cambio climático muy probablemente va a inducir un menor crecimiento en varias poblaciones y que conviene practicar la migración asistida gradualmente.

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      Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

      Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced hydraulic failure via stomatal closure, resulting in carbon starvation and a cascade of downstream effects such as reduced resistance to biotic agents. Mortality by hydraulic failure per se may occur for isohydric seedlings or trees near their maximum height. Although anisohydric plants are relatively drought-tolerant, they are predisposed to hydraulic failure because they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins during drought. Elevated temperatures should exacerbate carbon starvation and hydraulic failure. Biotic agents may amplify and be amplified by drought-induced plant stress. Wet multidecadal climate oscillations may increase plant susceptibility to drought-induced mortality by stimulating shifts in hydraulic architecture, effectively predisposing plants to water stress. Climate warming and increased frequency of extreme events will probably cause increased regional mortality episodes. Isohydric and anisohydric water potential regulation may partition species between survival and mortality, and, as such, incorporating this hydraulic framework may be effective for modeling plant survival and mortality under future climate conditions.
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        Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

        Abstract Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small effects of many genes, and the resulting genotypic redundancy combined with high fecundity may facilitate rapid local adaptation despite high gene flow. Gene flow with preadapted alleles from warmer climates may promote adaptation and migration at the leading edge, while populations at the rear will likely face extirpation. Widespread species with large populations and high fecundity are likely to persist and adapt, but will likely suffer adaptational lag for a few generations. As all tree species will be suffering lags, interspecific competition may weaken, facilitating persistence under suboptimal conditions. Species with small populations, fragmented ranges, low fecundity, or suffering declines due to introduced insects or diseases should be candidates for facilitated migration.
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          A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo
            [2 ] Universidad Rey Juan Carlos España
            [3 ] Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rfm
            Revista fitotecnia mexicana
            Rev. fitotec. mex
            Sociedad Mexicana de Fitogenética A.C. (Chapingo )
            0187-7380
            June 2014
            : 37
            : 2
            : 107-116
            S0187-73802014000200002

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Mexico
            Categories
            Agronomy

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