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      Nanocarrier-based drug combination therapy for glioblastoma

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          Abstract

          The current achievements in treating glioblastoma (GBM) patients are not sufficient because many challenges exist, such as tumor heterogeneity, the blood brain barrier, glioma stem cells, drug efflux pumps and DNA damage repair mechanisms. Drug combination therapies have shown increasing benefits against those challenges. With the help of nanocarriers, enhancement of the efficacy and safety could be gained using synergistic combinations of different therapeutic agents. In this review, we will discuss the major issues for GBM treatment, the rationales of drug combinations with or without nanocarriers and the principle of enhanced permeability and retention effect involved in nanomedicine-based tumor targeting and promising nanodiagnostics or -therapeutics. We will also summarize the recent progress and discuss the clinical perspectives of nanocarrier-based combination therapies. The goal of this article was to provide better understanding and key considerations to develop new nanomedicine combinations and nanotheranostics options to fight against GBM.

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          Most cited references 105

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          Angiogenesis in brain tumours.

          Despite aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, malignant gliomas remain uniformly fatal. To progress, these tumours stimulate the formation of new blood vessels through processes driven primarily by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the resulting vessels are structurally and functionally abnormal, and contribute to a hostile microenvironment (low oxygen tension and high interstitial fluid pressure) that selects for a more malignant phenotype with increased morbidity and mortality. Emerging preclinical and clinical data indicate that anti-VEGF therapies are potentially effective in glioblastoma--the most frequent primary brain tumour--and can transiently normalize tumour vessels. This creates a window of opportunity for optimally combining chemotherapeutics and radiation.
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            Normalizing tumor microenvironment to treat cancer: bench to bedside to biomarkers.

             Rakesh Jain (2013)
            For almost four decades, my work has focused on one challenge: improving the delivery and efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Working on the hypothesis that the abnormal tumor microenvironment-characterized by hypoxia and high interstitial fluid pressure--fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance, we developed an array of sophisticated imaging technologies and animal models as well as mathematic models to unravel the complex biology of tumors. Using these tools, we demonstrated that the blood and lymphatic vasculature, fibroblasts, immune cells, and extracellular matrix associated with tumors are abnormal, which together create a hostile tumor microenvironment. We next hypothesized that agents that induce normalization of the microenvironment can improve treatment outcome. Indeed, we demonstrated that judicious use of antiangiogenic agents--originally designed to starve tumors--could transiently normalize tumor vasculature, alleviate hypoxia, increase delivery of drugs and antitumor immune cells, and improve the outcome of various therapies. Our trials of antiangiogenics in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma supported this concept. They revealed that patients whose tumor blood perfusion increased in response to cediranib survived 6 to 9 months longer than those whose blood perfusion did not increase. The normalization hypothesis also opened doors to treating various nonmalignant diseases characterized by abnormal vasculature, such as neurofibromatosis type 2. More recently, we discovered that antifibrosis drugs capable of normalizing the tumor microenvironment can improve the delivery and efficacy of nano- and molecular medicines. Our current efforts are directed at identifying predictive biomarkers and more-effective strategies to normalize the tumor microenvironment for enhancing anticancer therapies.
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              Long-circulating and target-specific nanoparticles: theory to practice.

              The rapid recognition of intravenously injected colloidal carriers, such as liposomes and polymeric nanospheres from the blood by Kupffer cells, has initiated a surge of development for "Kupffer cell-evading" or long-circulating particles. Such carriers have applications in vascular drug delivery and release, site-specific targeting (passive as well as active targeting), as well as transfusion medicine. In this article we have critically reviewed and assessed the rational approaches in the design as well as the biological performance of such constructs. For engineering and design of long-circulating carriers, we have taken a lead from nature. Here, we have explored the surface mechanisms, which affords red blood cells long-circulatory lives and the ability of specific microorganisms to evade macrophage recognition. Our analysis is then centered where such strategies have been translated and fabricated to design a wide range of particulate carriers (e.g., nanospheres, liposomes, micelles, oil-in-water emulsions) with prolonged circulation and/or target specificity. With regard to the targeting issues, attention is particularly focused on the importance of physiological barriers and disease states.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2020
                1 January 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                : 1355-1372
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Advanced Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, Avenue Mounier, 73, B1 73.12, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding authors: Véronique Préat, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Advanced Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, Avenue Mounier, 73, B1 73.12, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. veronique.preat@ 123456uclouvain.be OR Raymond M. Schiffelers, Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, G03.550, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands. r.schiffelers@ 123456umcutrecht.nl

                *Shared coauthorship

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                thnov10p1355
                10.7150/thno.38147
                6956816
                © The author(s)

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

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