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Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research

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      CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

      The CONSORT statement is used worldwide to improve the reporting of randomised controlled trials. Kenneth Schulz and colleagues describe the latest version, CONSORT 2010, which updates the reporting guideline based on new methodological evidence and accumulating experience
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        Minimum information about a microarray experiment (MIAME)-toward standards for microarray data.

        Microarray analysis has become a widely used tool for the generation of gene expression data on a genomic scale. Although many significant results have been derived from microarray studies, one limitation has been the lack of standards for presenting and exchanging such data. Here we present a proposal, the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME), that describes the minimum information required to ensure that microarray data can be easily interpreted and that results derived from its analysis can be independently verified. The ultimate goal of this work is to establish a standard for recording and reporting microarray-based gene expression data, which will in turn facilitate the establishment of databases and public repositories and enable the development of data analysis tools. With respect to MIAME, we concentrate on defining the content and structure of the necessary information rather than the technical format for capturing it.
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          The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials.

          To comprehend the results of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), readers must understand its design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation. That goal can be achieved only through total transparency from authors. Despite several decades of educational efforts, the reporting of RCTs needs improvement. Investigators and editors developed the original CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to help authors improve reporting by use of a checklist and flow diagram. The revised CONSORT statement presented here incorporates new evidence and addresses some criticisms of the original statement. The checklist items pertain to the content of the Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The revised checklist includes 22 items selected because empirical evidence indicates that not reporting this information is associated with biased estimates of treatment effect, or because the information is essential to judge the reliability or relevance of the findings. We intended the flow diagram to depict the passage of participants through an RCT. The revised flow diagram depicts information from four stages of a trial (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and analysis). The diagram explicitly shows the number of participants, for each intervention group, included in the primary data analysis. Inclusion of these numbers allows the reader to judge whether the authors have done an intention-to-treat analysis. In sum, the CONSORT statement is intended to improve the reporting of an RCT, enabling readers to understand a trial's conduct and to assess the validity of its results.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London, United Kingdom
            [2 ]School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
            [3 ]School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
            [4 ]National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
            [5 ]Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
            Author notes

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            PLoS Biol
            PLoS Biology
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            June 2010
            June 2010
            29 June 2010
            : 8
            : 6
            Kilkenny et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
            Pages: 5
            Developmental Biology
            Infectious Diseases
            Science Policy
            Virology/Animal Models of Infection

            Life sciences


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