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      Recent Developments in High-Density Survey and Measurement (HDSM) for Archaeology: Implications for Practice and Theory

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      Annual Review of Anthropology

      Annual Reviews

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          State-of-the-art in visual attention modeling.

          Modeling visual attention--particularly stimulus-driven, saliency-based attention--has been a very active research area over the past 25 years. Many different models of attention are now available which, aside from lending theoretical contributions to other fields, have demonstrated successful applications in computer vision, mobile robotics, and cognitive systems. Here we review, from a computational perspective, the basic concepts of attention implemented in these models. We present a taxonomy of nearly 65 models, which provides a critical comparison of approaches, their capabilities, and shortcomings. In particular, 13 criteria derived from behavioral and computational studies are formulated for qualitative comparison of attention models. Furthermore, we address several challenging issues with models, including biological plausibility of the computations, correlation with eye movement datasets, bottom-up and top-down dissociation, and constructing meaningful performance measures. Finally, we highlight current research trends in attention modeling and provide insights for future.
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            Entangled

             Ian Hodder (2012)
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              Dental microwear texture analysis: technical considerations.

              Dental microwear analysis is commonly used to infer aspects of diet in extinct primates. Conventional methods of microwear analysis have usually been limited to two-dimensional imaging studies using a scanning electron microscope and the identification of apparent individual features. These methods have proved time-consuming and prone to subjectivity and observer error. Here we describe a new methodological approach to microwear: dental microwear texture analysis, based on three-dimensional surface measurements taken using white-light confocal microscopy and scale-sensitive fractal analysis. Surface parameters for complexity, scale of maximum complexity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, and textural fill volume offer repeatable, quantitative characterizations of three-dimensional surfaces, free of observer measurement error. Some results are presented to illustrate how these parameters distinguish extant primates with different diets. In this case, microwear surfaces of Cebus apella and Lophocebus albigena, which consume some harder food items, have higher average values for complexity than do folivores or soft fruit eaters.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Anthropology
                Annu. Rev. Anthropol.
                Annual Reviews
                0084-6570
                1545-4290
                October 21 2015
                October 21 2015
                : 44
                : 1
                : 347-364
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (CAST), University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701; email: ,
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-anthro-102214-013845
                © 2015

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