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BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics: Fundamentals, current status, and perspectives

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      Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays.

       Jinhui Song,  Z. Wang (2006)
      We have converted nanoscale mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowire (NW) arrays. The aligned NWs are deflected with a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode. The coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting properties in zinc oxide creates a strain field and charge separation across the NW as a result of its bending. The rectifying characteristic of the Schottky barrier formed between the metal tip and the NW leads to electrical current generation. The efficiency of the NW-based piezoelectric power generator is estimated to be 17 to 30%. This approach has the potential of converting mechanical, vibrational, and/or hydraulic energy into electricity for powering nanodevices.
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        Lead-free piezoceramics.

        Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.
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          Perspective on the Development of Lead-free Piezoceramics

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt 64287, Germany
            [2 ]School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175001, India
            [3 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
            Journal
            Applied Physics Reviews
            Applied Physics Reviews
            AIP Publishing
            1931-9401
            December 2017
            December 2017
            : 4
            : 4
            : 041305
            10.1063/1.4990046
            © 2017
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