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      Pregnancies after Childhood Craniopharyngioma: Results of KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000/2007 and Review of the Literature

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          Background: Data on female fertility, pregnancy, and outcome of offspring after childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (CP) are rare. Study Design: Observational study on pregnancy rate and offspring outcome in female CP patients recruited in KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000/2007 since 2000. Results: A total of 451 CP patients (223 female) have been recruited, and 269 (133 female) were postpubertal at study. Six of 133 female CP patients (4.5%) with a median age of 14.9 years at CP diagnosis had 9 pregnancies, giving birth to 10 newborns. Three patients achieved complete surgical resections. No patient underwent postoperative irradiation. Five natural pregnancies occurred in 3 CP patients without pituitary deficiencies. Four pregnancies in 3 CP patients with hypopituitarism were achieved under assisted reproductive techniques (ART) (median 4.5 cycles, range: 3–6 cycles). Median maternal age at pregnancy was 30 years (range: 22–41 years). Six babies (60%) were delivered by caesarean section. Median gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks (range: 34–43 weeks); median birth weight was 2,920 g (range: 2,270–3,520 g), the rate of preterm delivery was 33%. Enlargements of CP cysts occurred in 2 women during pregnancy. Other complications during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were not observed. Conclusions: Pregnancies after CP are rare and were only achieved after ART in patients with hypopituitarism. Close monitoring by an experienced reproductive physician is necessary. Due to a potentially increased risk for cystic enlargement, clinical, ophthalmological, and MRI monitoring are recommended in patients at risk. Severe perinatal complications, birth defects, and postnatal morbidity of mothers and offspring were not observed.

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          The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered. The 2016 edition has added newly recognized neoplasms, and has deleted some entities, variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance. Other notable changes include the addition of brain invasion as a criterion for atypical meningioma and the introduction of a soft tissue-type grading system for the now combined entity of solitary fibrous tumor / hemangiopericytoma-a departure from the manner by which other CNS tumors are graded. Overall, it is hoped that the 2016 CNS WHO will facilitate clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies that will lead to improvements in the lives of patients with brain tumors.
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              The discovery of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members VEGF, VEGF-B, placental growth factor (PlGF), VEGF-C and VEGF-D and their receptors VEGFR-1, -2 and -3 has provided tools for studying the vascular system in development as well as in diseases ranging from ischemic heart disease to cancer. VEGF has been established as the prime angiogenic molecule during development, adult physiology and pathology. PlGF may primarily mediate arteriogenesis, the formation of collateral arteries from preexisting arterioles, with potential future therapeutic use in for example occlusive atherosclerotic disease. VEGF-C and VEGF-D are primarily lymphangiogenic factors, but they can also induce angiogenesis in some conditions. While many studies have addressed the role of angiogenesis and the blood vasculature in human physiology, the lymphatic vascular system has until recently attracted very little attention. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in angiogenesis research and provide an overview of the molecular players involved in lymphangiogenesis.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                20 February 2020
                : 111
                : 1-2
                : 16-26
                aDepartment of Pediatrics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children’s Hospital, Klinikum Oldenburg AöR, Oldenburg, Germany
                bDepartment of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
                cDepartment of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany
                Author notes
                *Hermann L. Müller, MD, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children’s Hospital, Klinikum Oldenburg AöR, Rahel-Straus-Strasse 10, DE–26133 Oldenburg (Germany), mueller.hermann@klinikum-oldenburg.de
                506639 Neuroendocrinology 2021;111:16–26
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 11
                Research Article


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