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      Response of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes to rest interval between sets and set-repetition configuration during bouts of eccentric exercise

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Various studies have demonstrated that different rest intervals and set-repetition have a significant effect on hormonal and metabolic responses. These factors can lead to different muscle damage responses.

          Methods

          Forty untrained subjects (25.4 ± 0.068 years, height: 1.74 ± 0.97 cm, and weight: 30.8 ± 8.48 kg) in three sessions of eccentric resistance exercise with 24-h rest between each session participated in this study. Subjects were divided into four groups of 10 subjects who performed 50 eccentric contractions with different number of 5 and 10 sets, 5 and 10 repetitions, and the interset rest interval 1 and 3 min with 85% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured immediately before each session, immediately after each session, and 24 h after the last training session. Variance analysis with repeated measurement and Bonferroni post hoc test were used for statistical analysis of data.

          Results

          There is no significant difference in creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase between four groups at different time points ( p < 0.05).

          Conclusion

          The repetition of eccentric exercise for three consecutive days causes muscle damage that is independent of manipulating the interset rest intervals and the number of set-repetition.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man.

          Muscle soreness that has a delayed onset is a common feature among both athletes and untrained individuals who engage in unusual exercises. This study was designed to provide additional morphological data to assess the relevance and significance of our previous findings that the sore muscles contain fibers with disorganized myofibrillar material. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 12 males (mean age 25 +/- 7 years), who suffered from severe soreness in their thigh muscles 18--72 h following eccentric bicycle exercise. Their strength performance were tested in parallel. Knee extensor strength was decreased at all angular velocities soon after exercise but gradually increased over the subsequent days although slower at the fastest contractions. Disturbances of the cross-striated band pattern were constantly observed. They originated from the myofibrillar Z-band, which showed marked streaming, broadening and, at places, total disruption. The disturbances were found in every second to every third fiber up to 3 days after exercise and in one tenth of the fibers 6 days following the exercise. Type 2 fibers were predominantly affected. Thus, the eccentric exercise gives rise to muscles soreness and influences, on mechanical basis and selectively with regard to fiber type, the fine structure of the contractile apparatus.
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            Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components.

            Exercise involving lengthening of an activated muscle can cause injury. Recent reports documented the mechanics of exercise-induced muscle injury as well as physiological and cellular events and manifestations of injury. Loss of the cytoskeletal protein desmin and loss of cellular integrity as evidenced by sarcolemmal damage occur early during heavy eccentric exercise. These studies indicate that the earliest events in muscle injury are mechanical in nature, while later events indicate that it may be more appropriate to conclude that intense exercise initiates a muscle remodeling process. We conclude that muscle injury after eccentric exercise is differently severe in muscles with different architecture, is fibre type-specific, primarily because of fibre strain in the acute phase, and is exacerbated by inflammation after the initial injury.
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              Muscle damage following repeated bouts of high force eccentric exercise.

              This study was designed to test the hypothesis that performing repeated bouts of eccentric exercise when muscles were not recovered from previous exercise would exacerbate muscle damage. Twelve nonweight-trained males (21.7 +/- 2.4 yr) performed three sets of 10 eccentric actions of the elbow flexors (ECC) using a dumbbell that was set at 80% of the preexercise maximal isometric force level. This same exercise was repeated 3 and 6 d after the first exercise. Maximal isometric force, relaxed and flexed elbow joint angle, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activities were assessed. Ultrasound images were taken from the upper arm. These measures (except soreness) were assessed immediately before and after each eccentric exercise bout (ECC1, ECC2, and ECC3) and 3 d after ECC3. Soreness was assessed prior to ECC1 and once a day for 9 d thereafter. All criterion measures changed significantly (P < 0.01) after ECC1. ECC2 and ECC3 performed 3 and 6 d after ECC1 did not exacerbate damage and did not appear to slow the recovery rate. Increased echointensity in ultrasound images was demonstrated following ECC1, but no indication of increased damage was found after ECC2 and ECC3. Strenuous exercise performed with "damaged" muscles did not exacerbate damage or affect the repair process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                imas
                IMAS
                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                IMAS
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2061-1617
                2061-5094
                15 March 2018
                June 2018
                : 10
                : 2
                : 83-86
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Sport Physiology, University of Birjand , Birjand, I.R. Iran
                [ 2 ]Medical Department, University of Gonabad , Gonabad, I.R. Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Hossein Mohammadi; Department of Sport Physiology, University of Birjand, No. 22, Nur Street, Neyshabur city, Razavi Khorasan Province, Birjand 9318653144, I.R. Iran; Phone: +98 9157131382; E-mail: sea_65000@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.1556/1646.10.2018.09
                6167626
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 4
                Funding
                Funding sources: The research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
                Categories
                ORIGINAL PAPER

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