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      Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

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          In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm) tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV) treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection.

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          Detection and description of a particular Ostreid herpesvirus 1 genotype associated with massive mortality outbreaks of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France in 2008.

          Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). In the summer 2008, abnormal mortality rates ranging from 80% to 100% were reported in France and affected only Pacific oysters. Analyses of oyster samples collected during mortality outbreaks demonstrated a significant detection of OsHV-1 (75% of analysed batches), which appeared stronger than previous years. DNA sequencing based on C and IA regions was carried out on 28 batches of OsHV-1 infected Pacific oysters collected in 2008. Polymorphisms were described in both the C and IA regions and characterized a genotype of OsHV-1 not already reported and termed OsHV-1 microVar. A microsatellite zone present in the C region showed several deletions. Additionally, 44 isolates collected in France and in the USA, from 1995 to 2007 were sequenced and compared to the 2008 sequences. The analyses of 76 sequences showed OsHV-1 microVar detection only in 2008 isolates. These data suggest that OsHV-1 microVar can be assumed as an emergent genotype. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited 1

            The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8
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              A novel class of herpesvirus with bivalve hosts.

              Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is the only member of the Herpesviridae that has an invertebrate host and is associated with sporadic mortality in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and other bivalve species. Cryo-electron microscopy of purified capsids revealed the distinctive T=16 icosahedral structure characteristic of herpesviruses, although the preparations examined lacked pentons. The gross genome organization of OsHV-1 was similar to that of certain mammalian herpesviruses (including herpes simplex virus and human cytomegalovirus), consisting of two invertible unique regions (U(L), 167.8 kbp; U(S), 3.4 kbp) each flanked by inverted repeats (TR(L)/IR(L), 7.6 kbp; TR(S)/IR(S), 9.8 kbp), with an additional unique sequence (X, 1.5 kbp) between IR(L) and IR(S). Of the 124 unique genes predicted from the 207 439 bp genome sequence, 38 were members of 12 families of related genes and encoded products related to helicases, inhibitors of apoptosis, deoxyuridine triphosphatase and RING-finger proteins, in addition to membrane-associated proteins. Eight genes in three of the families appeared to be fragmented. Other genes that did not belong to the families were predicted to encode DNA polymerase, the two subunits of ribonucleotide reductase, a helicase, a primase, the ATPase subunit of terminase, a RecB-like protein, additional RING-like proteins, an ion channel and several other membrane-associated proteins. Sequence comparisons showed that OsHV-1 is at best tenuously related to the two classes of vertebrate herpesviruses (those associated with mammals, birds and reptiles, and those associated with bony fish and amphibians). OsHV-1 thus represents a third major class of the herpesviruses.

                Author and article information

                Vet Res
                Veterinary Research
                BioMed Central
                7 February 2011
                : 42
                : 1
                : 27
                [1 ]Ifremer (Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer), Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie (LGP), 17390 La Tremblade, France
                Copyright ©2011 Schikorski et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Veterinary medicine


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