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      An unusual successful treatment with non-sulfonamides: primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is a rare suppurative or granulomatous inflammation disease caused by Nocardia infection. Because of nonspecific clinical findings, it is always misdiagnosed as common pyogenic infection. Sulfonamides have been the standard treatment for nocardiosis, but the outcome is always poor due to the high rates of misdiagnosis and refractoriness of the disease.

          Cases presentations

          The presented cases are patients of acute suppurative cutaneous infection without involvement of other organs. We report four cases, of which two cases were localized cutaneous nocardiosis and the other two were lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis. All cases were diagnosed with pus culture which turned out to be Nocardia brasiliensis. We report an improvement of primary cutaneous nocardiosis symptoms in the four patients treated with non-sulfonamides. All patients were cured and recovered without recurrence during follow-up.

          Conclusion

          Our results suggest that non-sulfonamides are effective treatment for the patients with primary cutaneous nocardiosis who are resistant or intolerant to sulfonamides.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 8

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          Cutaneous nocardiosis: report of two cases and review of the literature.

          Cutaneous nocardiosis is an uncommon infectious disease that presents as a primary cutaneous infection or as a disseminated disease. It is often misdiagnosed because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical picture.
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            First successful treatment of Nocardia farcinica brain abscess with moxifloxacin.

            Nocardia farcinica is an emerging pathogen in immunosuppressed patients causing both localized and disseminated infections. Many strains of this species are multidrug-resistant and require long-term antibiotic therapy, and consequently the choice of an oral treatment can be problematic. We report here the first case of successful treatment of N. farcinica brain abscess in a renal transplant recipient with an extended-spectrum fluoroquinolone, moxifloxacin.
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              Cutaneous manifestations of Nocardia brasiliensis infection in Taiwan during 2002-2012-clinical studies and molecular typing of pathogen by gyrB and 16S gene sequencing.

              To observe the clinicopathologic and resistance profiles of the Nocardia brasiliensis causing cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan, 12 N. brasiliensis isolates were prospectively collected from patients with cutaneous nocardiosis in a hospital during 2002-2012. Clinicopathologic data were obtained, and isolates were identified by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA sequencing. Susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial compounds were tested. Isolates were further genotyped by sequencing of 16S rRNA, secA1, hsp65, and gyrB genes. The nodulopustular pyoderma associated with sporotrichoid spreading was the most common skin presentations caused by N. brasiliensis. All of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and resistant to kanamycin, erythromycin, and oxacillin, while susceptibilities to imipenem, vancomycin, penicillin-G, tetracycline, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin varied among the 12 isolates. GyrB genotyping delineated the 12 isolates into 2 major groups, which was coincident with different single nucleotide substitutions at position 160 (G versus T) of 16S rRNA, different levels of imipenem minimum inhibition concentration (4-32 versus 0.25-0.75 mg/L), and prevalence of lymphadenitis (66.7 versus 16.7%). We have noted that tiny pustular lesions can be the first sign of cutaneous nocardiosis, which we believe has not been previously emphasized. No resistance to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was found; therefore, sulphonamide drugs remain effective for treatment of cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                10 September 2018
                : 14
                : 1661-1664
                Affiliations
                Department of Dermatology, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China, qionghuicheng12@ 123456126.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qiong-Hui Cheng, Department of Dermatology, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, No 10 Changjiang Street, Chongqing 400042, China, Tel +86 1 336 837 3009, Email qionghuicheng12@ 123456126.com
                Article
                tcrm-14-1661
                10.2147/TCRM.S169239
                6136398
                © 2018 Chen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Series

                Medicine

                primary cutaneous nocardiosis, treatment, non-sulfonamides

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