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      Molecular chaperones and stress-inducible protein-sorting factors coordinate the spatiotemporal distribution of protein aggregates


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          The deposition of misfolded proteins in cytoplasmic protein bodies requires the concerted action of stress-inducible protein-sorting factors and molecular chaperones. Protein sequestration during acute stress is a cellular strategy that adjusts the flux of misfolded proteins to the capacities of the protein quality control system.


          Acute stress causes a rapid redistribution of protein quality control components and aggregation-prone proteins to diverse subcellular compartments. How these remarkable changes come about is not well understood. Using a phenotypic reporter for a synthetic yeast prion, we identified two protein-sorting factors of the Hook family, termed Btn2 and Cur1, as key regulators of spatial protein quality control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Btn2 and Cur1 are undetectable under normal growth conditions but accumulate in stressed cells due to increased gene expression and reduced proteasomal turnover. Newly synthesized Btn2 can associate with the small heat shock protein Hsp42 to promote the sorting of misfolded proteins to a peripheral protein deposition site. Alternatively, Btn2 can bind to the chaperone Sis1 to facilitate the targeting of misfolded proteins to a juxtanuclear compartment. Protein redistribution by Btn2 is accompanied by a gradual depletion of Sis1 from the cytosol, which is mediated by the sorting factor Cur1. On the basis of these findings, we propose a dynamic model that explains the subcellular distribution of misfolded proteins as a function of the cytosolic concentrations of molecular chaperones and protein-sorting factors. Our model suggests that protein aggregation is not a haphazard process but rather an orchestrated cellular response that adjusts the flux of misfolded proteins to the capacities of the protein quality control system.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes.

          We explored genomic expression patterns in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responding to diverse environmental transitions. DNA microarrays were used to measure changes in transcript levels over time for almost every yeast gene, as cells responded to temperature shocks, hydrogen peroxide, the superoxide-generating drug menadione, the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent diamide, the disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol, hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock, amino acid starvation, nitrogen source depletion, and progression into stationary phase. A large set of genes (approximately 900) showed a similar drastic response to almost all of these environmental changes. Additional features of the genomic responses were specialized for specific conditions. Promoter analysis and subsequent characterization of the responses of mutant strains implicated the transcription factors Yap1p, as well as Msn2p and Msn4p, in mediating specific features of the transcriptional response, while the identification of novel sequence elements provided clues to novel regulators. Physiological themes in the genomic responses to specific environmental stresses provided insights into the effects of those stresses on the cell.
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            Three new dominant drug resistance cassettes for gene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

            Disruption-deletion cassettes are powerful tools used to study gene function in many organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Perhaps the most widely useful of these are the heterologous dominant drug resistance cassettes, which use antibiotic resistance genes from bacteria and fungi as selectable markers. We have created three new dominant drug resistance cassettes by replacing the kanamycin resistance (kan(r)) open reading frame from the kanMX3 and kanMX4 disruption-deletion cassettes (Wach et al., 1994) with open reading frames conferring resistance to the antibiotics hygromycin B (hph), nourseothricin (nat) and bialaphos (pat). The new cassettes, pAG25 (natMX4), pAG29 (patMX4), pAG31 (patMX3), pAG32 (hphMX4), pAG34 (hphMX3) and pAG35 (natMX3), are cloned into pFA6, and so are in all other respects identical to pFA6-kanMX3 and pFA6-kanMX4. Most tools and techniques used with the kanMX plasmids can also be used with the hph, nat and patMX containing plasmids. These new heterologous dominant drug resistance cassettes have unique antibiotic resistance phenotypes and do not affect growth when inserted into the ho locus. These attributes make the cassettes ideally suited for creating S. cerevisiae strains with multiple mutations within a single strain. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              A second set of loxP marker cassettes for Cre-mediated multiple gene knockouts in budding yeast.

               U Gueldener (2002)
              Heterologous markers are important tools required for the molecular dissection of gene function in many organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, the presence of gene families and isoenzymes often makes it necessary to delete more than one gene. We recently introduced a new and efficient gene disruption cassette for repeated use in budding yeast, which combines the heterologous dominant kan(r) resistance marker with a Cre/loxP-mediated marker removal procedure. Here we describe an additional set of four completely heterologous loxP-flanked marker cassettes carrying the genes URA3 and LEU2 from Kluyveromyces lactis, his5(+) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the dominant resistance marker ble(r) from the bacterial transposon Tn5, which confers resistance to the antibiotic phleomycin. All five loxP--marker gene--loxP gene disruption cassettes can be generated using the same pair of oligonucleotides and all can be used for gene disruption with high efficiency. For marker rescue we have created three additional Cre expression vectors carrying HIS3, TRP1 or ble(r) as the yeast selection marker. The set of disruption cassettes and Cre expression plasmids described here represents a significant further development of the marker rescue system, which is ideally suited to functional analysis of the yeast genome.

                Author and article information

                Role: Monitoring Editor
                Mol Biol Cell
                Mol. Biol. Cell
                Mol. Bio. Cell
                Molecular Biology of the Cell
                The American Society for Cell Biology
                15 August 2012
                : 23
                : 16
                : 3041-3056
                Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany
                Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine
                Author notes
                1Address correspondence to: Simon Alberti ( alberti@ 123456mpi-cbg.de ).
                © 2012 Malinovska et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

                “ASCB®,” “The American Society for Cell Biology®,” and “Molecular Biology of the Cell®” are registered trademarks of The American Society of Cell BD; are registered trademarks of The American Society of Cell Biology.

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