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      Genetic differentiation in red‐bellied piranha populations ( Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner, 1858) from the Solimões‐Amazonas River


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          Red‐bellied piranhas ( Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões‐Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red‐bellied piranha is unavailable. Here, we describe the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of red‐bellied piranha populations collected at different locations of Solimões‐Amazonas River system. We collected 234 red‐bellied piranhas and analyzed throughout eight microsatellite markers. We identified high genetic diversity within populations, although the populations of lakes ANA, ARA, and MAR have shown some decrease in their genetic variability, indicating overfishing at these communities. Was identified the existence of two biological populations when the analysis was taken altogether at the lakes of Solimões‐Amazonas River system, with significant genetic differentiation between them. The red‐bellied piranha populations presented limited gene flow between two groups of populations, which were explained by geographical distance between these lakes. However, high level of gene flow was observed between the lakes within of the biological populations. We have identified high divergence between the Catalão subpopulation and all other subpopulations. We suggest the creation of sustainable reserve for lakes near the city of Manaus to better manage and protect this species, whose populations suffer from both extractive and sport fishing.

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          Isolation by distance, web service

          Background The population genetic pattern known as "isolation by distance" results from spatially limited gene flow and is a commonly observed phenomenon in natural populations. However, few software programs exist for estimating the degree of isolation by distance among populations, and they tend not to be user-friendly. Results We have created Isolation by Distance Web Service (IBDWS) a user-friendly web interface for determining patterns of isolation by distance. Using this site, population geneticists can perform a variety of powerful statistical tests including Mantel tests, Reduced Major Axis (RMA) regression analysis, as well as calculate F ST between all pairs of populations and perform basic summary statistics (e.g., heterozygosity). All statistical results, including publication-quality scatter plots in Postscript format, are returned rapidly to the user and can be easily downloaded. Conclusion IBDWS population genetics analysis software is hosted at and documentation is available at . The source code has been made available on Source Forge at .
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              Maximum-likelihood estimation of molecular haplotype frequencies in a diploid population.

              Molecular techniques allow the survey of a large number of linked polymorphic loci in random samples from diploid populations. However, the gametic phase of haplotypes is usually unknown when diploid individuals are heterozygous at more than one locus. To overcome this difficulty, we implement an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm leading to maximum-likelihood estimates of molecular haplotype frequencies under the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated for simulated data representing both DNA sequences and highly polymorphic loci with different levels of recombination. As expected, the EM algorithm is found to perform best for large samples, regardless of recombination rates among loci. To ensure finding the global maximum likelihood estimate, the EM algorithm should be started from several initial conditions. The present approach appears to be useful for the analysis of nuclear DNA sequences or highly variable loci. Although the algorithm, in principle, can accommodate an arbitrary number of loci, there are practical limitations because the computing time grows exponentially with the number of polymorphic loci. Although the algorithm, in principle, can accommodate an arbitrary number of loci, there are practical limitations because the computing time grows exponentially with the number of polymorphic loci.

                Author and article information

                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                24 May 2016
                June 2016
                : 6
                : 12 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.2016.6.issue-12 )
                : 4203-4213
                [ 1 ] Laboratório de Ecofisiologia e Evolução MolecularInstituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Av. André Araújo 2936, Aleixo 69060‐001 ManausBrasil
                [ 2 ] Laboratório de Genética Aplicada à Aquicultura & Biologia MolecularUniversidade Nilton Lins Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Aquicultura Av. Professor Nilton Lins 3259, Parque das Laranjeiras 69058‐030 ManausBrasil
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia e Evolução Molecular, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, 69060‐001, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

                Tel.: +55 (92) 3643‐3190;

                Fax: +55 (92) 3643‐3186;

                E‐mail: carloshenriqueufc@ 123456gmail.com

                © 2016 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 12 January 2016
                : 13 April 2016
                : 26 April 2016
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Funded by: Petrobrás
                Funded by: FINEP
                Funded by: CNPq
                Funded by: CAPES
                Funded by: FAPEAM
                Funded by: PIATAM
                Funded by: INCT ADAPTA
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                June 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.2 mode:remove_FC converted:26.07.2016

                Evolutionary Biology
                biological populations,gene flow,genetic diversity,geographical distance,management


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