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      Biofuels Production by Biomass Gasification: A Review

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      Energies

      MDPI AG

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          Ethanol for a sustainable energy future.

          Renewable energy is one of the most efficient ways to achieve sustainable development. Increasing its share in the world matrix will help prolong the existence of fossil fuel reserves, address the threats posed by climate change, and enable better security of the energy supply on a global scale. Most of the "new renewable energy sources" are still undergoing large-scale commercial development, but some technologies are already well established. These include Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, which, after 30 years of production, is a global energy commodity that is fully competitive with motor gasoline and appropriate for replication in many countries.
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            Opportunities and prospects in the chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to fuels

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              Enhanced ethanol production inside carbon-nanotube reactors containing catalytic particles.

              Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have well-defined hollow interiors and exhibit unusual mechanical and thermal stability as well as electron conductivity. This opens intriguing possibilities to introduce other matter into the cavities, which may lead to nanocomposite materials with interesting properties or behaviour different from the bulk. Here, we report a striking enhancement of the catalytic activity of Rh particles confined inside nanotubes for the conversion of CO and H2 to ethanol. The overall formation rate of ethanol (30.0 mol mol(-1)Rh h(-1)) inside the nanotubes exceeds that on the outside of the nanotubes by more than an order of magnitude, although the latter is much more accessible. Such an effect with synergetic confinement has not been observed before in catalysis involving CNTs. We believe that our discovery may be of a quite general nature and could apply to many other processes. It is anticipated that this will motivate theoretical and experimental studies to further the fundamental understanding of the host-guest interaction within carbon and other nanotube systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ENERGA
                Energies
                Energies
                MDPI AG
                1996-1073
                April 2018
                March 31 2018
                : 11
                : 4
                : 811
                Article
                10.3390/en11040811
                © 2018
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/4/811

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