Dr Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, and Dr Yuko Ohno, who are all based at the Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University in Japan, are seeking solutions to ensure quality and consistency of care in the context of a rapidly ageing population that places great demand on healthcare systems. Their project "A Study on Quantification of 'Subtle' in Care: Targeting Positioning Care" explores the potential of robots and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to care for the elderly and others who may require more focused attention. Their primary aim is to look at positioning care. "In order to complete positioning care with comfort, stability, and safety, two approaches were applied," highlights Jeong. "We looked at how clinical experts, such as nurses and physical therapists, judge the subtle change, as well as which engineering approaches with non-invasive and unconstrained method are possible to detect the subtleties." The team investigated the main target for human subjects, movements and positioning care, and measuring methods. They then discussed positioning care with comfort, stability, and safety for human subjects with difficulty in communicating with caregivers and families. The researchers extended the scope of the research to include a proposal to evaluate positioning care based on quantitative methods and non-invasive measurements to recognise response in human subjects through vital signs. "As a result, new findings were obtained, including identifying biometric indicators of comfortable posture and movement and extracting 'subtleties' with non-invasive or unconstrained, resilience engineering-like support," outlines Ohno. The researchers believe that the perception ability of robots is insufficient due to the fact that a robot's reaction depends on its understanding of human actions. "This raises the concern of how to correlate psychological changes to legible data,?" points out Jeong. "For this reason, we focused on conveying a fault to a nursing care robot through the vertical ground reaction force implementing a reliable yet economical method of providing rapid feedback." The team collected psychological results by administering questionnaires to subjects in which they answered questions regarding the sit-to-stand movement aspects that they found challenging in experiments where they were robot assisted and in others that were self-performed. The results of the questionnaire enable the researchers to define a selected class as a fault if accompanied by a demanding feeling.