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      Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

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          This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered.

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          Most cited references 137

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          Industrial and biotechnological applications of laccases: a review.

          Laccases have received much attention from researchers in last decades due to their ability to oxidise both phenolic and non-phenolic lignin related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, which makes them very useful for their application to several biotechnological processes. Such applications include the detoxification of industrial effluents, mostly from the paper and pulp, textile and petrochemical industries, use as a tool for medical diagnostics and as a bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases are also used as cleaning agents for certain water purification systems, as catalysts for the manufacture of anti-cancer drugs and even as ingredients in cosmetics. In addition, their capacity to remove xenobiotic substances and produce polymeric products makes them a useful tool for bioremediation purposes. This paper reviews the applications of laccases within different industrial fields as well as their potential extension to the nanobiotechnology area.
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            Feasibility of bioremediation by white-rot fungi.

            The ligninolytic enzymes of white-rot fungi have a broad substrate specificity and have been implicated in the transformation and mineralization of organopollutants with structural similarities to lignin. This review presents evidence for the involvement of these enzymes in white-rot fungal degradation of munitions waste, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bleach plant effluent, synthetic dyes, synthetic polymers, and wood preservatives. Factors relating to the feasibility of using white-rot fungi in bioremediation treatments for organopollutants are discussed.
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              Fate of Pesticides in the Environment and its Bioremediation

               M Gavrilescu (2005)

                Author and article information

                The Korean Society of Mycology
                December 2010
                31 December 2010
                : 38
                : 4
                : 238-248
                Applied Mycology Group, Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL, UK.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author ( n.magan@ )
                © The Korean Society of Mycology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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