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      Method of Food Preparation Influences Blood Glucose Response to a High-Carbohydrate Meal: A Randomised Cross-over Trial


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          The aim of this study was to establish the blood glucose response to different cooking methods of pasta. Participants consumed three identical meals in a random order that were freshly cooked (hot), cooled and reheated. Blood glucose concentrations were assessed before, and every 15 min after ingestion of each meal for 120 min. There was a significant interaction between temperature and time ( F ( 8.46 372.34 ) = 2.75, p = 0.005), with the reheated (90 min) condition returning to baseline faster than both cold (120 min) and hot conditions. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower in the reheated (703 ± 56 mmol·L −1·min −1) than the hot condition (735 ± 77 mmol·L −1·min −1, t ( 92 ) = −3.36, p bonferroni = 0.003), with no significant difference with the cold condition (722 ± 62 mmol·L −1·min −1). To our knowledge, the current study is the first to show that reheating pasta causes changes in post-prandial glucose response, with a quicker return to fasting levels in both the reheated and cooled conditions than the hot condition. The mechanisms behind the changes in post-prandial blood glucose seen in this study are most likely related to changes in starch structure and how these changes influence glycaemic response.

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          Most cited references30

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          Determination of the non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates.

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            Resistant starch—a review of the physical properties and biological impact of RS3

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              Glucose oscillations, more than constant high glucose, induce p53 activation and a metabolic memory in human endothelial cells.

              Damage persists in HUVECs exposed to a constant high glucose concentration long after glucose normalisation, a phenomenon termed 'metabolic memory'. Evaluation of the effects of exposure of HUVECs to oscillating high glucose on the induction of markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage (phospho-γ-histone H2AX and PKCδ) and onset of metabolic memory, and the possible role of the tumour suppressor transcriptional factor p53 is of pivotal interest. HUVECs were incubated for 3 weeks in 5 or 25 mmol/l glucose or oscillating glucose (24 h in 5 mmol/l glucose followed by 24 h in 25 mmol/l glucose) or for 1 week in constant 5 mmol/l glucose after being exposed for 2 weeks to continuous 25 mmol/l high glucose or oscillating glucose. Transcriptional activity of p53 was also evaluated in the first 24 h after high glucose exposure. High constant glucose upregulated phospho-γ-histone H2AX and protein kinase C (PKC)δ compared with control. Oscillating glucose was even more effective than both normal and constant high glucose. Both constant and oscillating glucose resulted in a memory effect, which was more pronounced in the oscillating condition. Transcriptional activity of p53 peaked 6 h after glucose exposure, showing a predicted oscillatory behaviour. Exposure to oscillating glucose was more deleterious than constant high glucose and induced a metabolic memory after glucose normalisation. Hyperactivation of p53 during glucose oscillation might be due to the absence of consistent feedback inhibition during each glucose spike and might account for the worse outcome of this condition.

                Author and article information

                25 December 2019
                January 2020
                : 9
                : 1
                : 23
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK; C.Hodges@ 123456brighton.ac.uk (C.H.); F.Archer1@ 123456uni.brighton.ac.uk (F.A.); M.Chowdhury4@ 123456uni.brighton.ac.uk (M.C.); B.Evans6@ 123456uni.brighton.ac.uk (B.L.E.); D.Ghelani1@ 123456uni.brighton.ac.uk (D.J.G.); M.Mortoglou1@ 123456uni.brighton.ac.uk (M.M.)
                [2 ]Centre for Stress and Age-related Disease, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
                Author notes
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                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 09 October 2019
                : 15 December 2019

                pasta,glycemic index,resistant starch
                pasta, glycemic index, resistant starch


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