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      Topological effects in nanomagnetism: from superparamagnetism to chiral quantum solitons

      Advances in Physics

      Informa UK Limited

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          The Resonating Valence Bond State in La2CuO4 and Superconductivity.

          The oxide superconductors, particularly those recently discovered that are based on La(2)CuO(4), have a set of peculiarities that suggest a common, unique mechanism: they tend in every case to occur near a metal-insulator transition into an odd-electron insulator with peculiar magnetic properties. This insulating phase is proposed to be the long-sought "resonating-valence-bond" state or "quantum spin liquid" hypothesized in 1973. This insulating magnetic phase is favored by low spin, low dimensionality, and magnetic frustration. The preexisting magnetic singlet pairs of the insulating state become charged superconducting pairs when the insulator is doped sufficiently strongly. The mechanism for superconductivity is hence predominantly electronic and magnetic, although weak phonon interactions may favor the state. Many unusual properties are predicted, especially of the insulating state.
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            Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices

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              Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future.

              This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Physics
                Advances in Physics
                Informa UK Limited
                0001-8732
                1460-6976
                February 2012
                February 2012
                : 61
                : 1
                : 1-116
                10.1080/00018732.2012.663070
                © 2012

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