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      Consistency of health-related quality of life among people living with HIV: Latent statetrait analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the consistency of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH) by breaking down the variance of repeated HRQoL measures into trait, state, and method components and to test the stability of HRQoL over time. In addition, we wanted to examine whether HRQoL trait components are related to personality traits, while controlling for selected socio-medical variables.

          Methods

          Three assessments were performed with a six-month lag on each assessment. Each participant filled out a World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life-BREF to assess HRQoL and a NEO-FFI to measure Big Five personality traits. Overall, 82 participants out of 141 (58.2% of the initial sample) participated in all the assessments.

          Results

          The HRQoL among PLWH represented a stable trait to a somewhat greater extent than a situational variability, although the proportions were domain and time variant. More specifically, psychological domain appeared to be the most consistent, whereas social domain appeared to be the most prone to situational influences. The trait component of HRQoL was positively related to being in a relationship, being employed, and being extraverted, and negatively related to neuroticism, which altogether explained 26% of the trait variance.

          Conclusions

          HRQoL among PLWH is rather distinct from personality and socio-medical data, which indicates its uniqueness in a clinical practise. Thus, there is a need for a more comprehensive assessment of HRQoL among this patient group to capture an additional source of variance in this important theoretical construct.

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          Most cited references 71

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          Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being.

           Carol Ryff (1989)
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            Missing data analysis: making it work in the real world.

             George Graham (2008)
            This review presents a practical summary of the missing data literature, including a sketch of missing data theory and descriptions of normal-model multiple imputation (MI) and maximum likelihood methods. Practical missing data analysis issues are discussed, most notably the inclusion of auxiliary variables for improving power and reducing bias. Solutions are given for missing data challenges such as handling longitudinal, categorical, and clustered data with normal-model MI; including interactions in the missing data model; and handling large numbers of variables. The discussion of attrition and nonignorable missingness emphasizes the need for longitudinal diagnostics and for reducing the uncertainty about the missing data mechanism under attrition. Strategies suggested for reducing attrition bias include using auxiliary variables, collecting follow-up data on a sample of those initially missing, and collecting data on intent to drop out. Suggestions are given for moving forward with research on missing data and attrition.
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              Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people.

              Three studies are reported that examine the relations between personality and happiness or subjective well-being. It is argued that (a) one set of traits influences positive affect or satisfaction, whereas a different set of traits influences negative affect or dissatisfaction; (b) the former set of traits can be reviewed as components of extraversion, and the latter as components of neuroticism; and (c) personality differences antedate and predict differences in happiness over a period of 10 years, thus ruling out the rival hypothesis that temporary moods or states account for the observed relations. A model of individual differences in happiness is presented, and the separate and complementary roles of trait and adaptation-level theories in explaining happiness are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1290, GRID grid.12847.38, Faculty of Psychology, , University of Warsaw, ; Stawki 5/7, 00-183 Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2184 0541, GRID grid.433893.6, Faculty of Psychology, , University of Social Sciences and Humanities, ; Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warsaw, Poland
                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4230-3806, +48 22 55 49 805 , marcin.rzeszutek@psych.uw.edu.pl
                +48 22 517-98-56 , egruszczynska@swps.edu.pl
                Journal
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-7525
                24 May 2018
                24 May 2018
                2018
                : 16
                29793544 5968481 929 10.1186/s12955-018-0929-4
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: This work was supported by the University of Warsaw, Faculty of Psychology.
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2018

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