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      Effects of Different Levels of Pomegranate Seed Oil on Some Blood Parameters and Disease Resistance Against Yersinia ruckeri in Rainbow Trout


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          This study is aimed to assess the effects of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) supplementation on growth performance, some hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters, and disease resistance against Yersinia ruckeri in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). 240 fish in total were randomly assigned into four triplicate groups (20 fish/per aquarium) corresponding to four dietary treatments: control (PSO 0; no addition of PSO), 0.5% (PSO 5), 1.00% (PSO 10), and 2.00% (PSO 20) of PSO, respectively. After the 60 day-feeding trial, fish blood samples were collected and compared. Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed a significant ( P < 0.05) effect of PSO on red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase parameters in PSO 5 and PSO 10 with regard to control. Moreover, a pronounced ( P < 0.05) increased in weight gain, growth and feed conversion was found in fish fed with PSO supplemented diets. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Y. ruckeri and survival recorded for 20 days. Cumulative survival was 45.10% in fish fed with the control diet, whereas in fish fed with PSO 5, PSO 10, and PSO 20 supplemented diets, survival was 58.82, 56.86, and 56.86%, respectively. In conclusion, dietary administration of PSO induced a reduction in mortality of rainbow trout infected with Y. ruckeri, intercalary significant differences occurred on growth performance and some blood values among treated groups. These positive effects of PSO could be considered for new applications in aquaculture.

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          Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing.

          The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18-20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6-8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from whole pomegranates than in experimental juices obtained from the arils only (12-14 TEAC). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses of the juices revealed that commercial juices contained the pomegranate tannin punicalagin (1500-1900 mg/L) while only traces of this compound were detected in the experimental juice obtained from arils in the laboratory. This shows that pomegranate industrial processing extracts some of the hydrolyzable tannins present in the fruit rind. This could account for the higher antioxidant activity of commercial juices compared to the experimental ones. In addition, anthocyanins, ellagic acid derivatives, and hydrolyzable tannins were detected and quantified in the pomegranate juices.
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            Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.

            Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals.
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              A rapid, direct assay to measure degranulation of bovine neutrophil primary granules.

              A direct, rapid, quantitative colorimetric assay to determine neutrophil primary granule degranulation was adapted for use with bovine neutrophils. The assay measures the exocytosis of myeloperoxidase (MPO) using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a substrate. The assay was validated by evaluating the effects of various stimulants and inhibitors of degranulation, the kinetics of primary granule exocytosis, and comparing the total myeloperoxidase content of neutrophils obtained from calves and adults. The results demonstrate that the assay is capable of detecting important differences that may occur in degranulation of bovine neutrophil primary granules and in total neutrophil myeloperoxidase content.

                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                23 May 2018
                : 9
                : 596
                [1] 1Bayramic Vocational School, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University , Çanakkale, Turkey
                [2] 2Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina , Messina, Italy
                [3] 3Faculty of Veterinary, Kastamonu University , Kastamonu, Turkey
                [4] 4Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina , Messina, Italy
                [5] 5Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University , Çanakkale, Turkey
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gionata De Vico, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                Reviewed by: Alaa El-Din Hamid Sayed, Assiut University, Egypt; Rina Chakrabarti, University of Delhi, India

                *Correspondence: Vincenzo Parrino, vincenzo.parrino@ 123456unime.it

                These authors have contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.

                This article was submitted to Aquatic Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Copyright © 2018 Acar, Parrino, Kesbiç, Lo Paro, Saoca, Abbate, Yılmaz and Fazio.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 07 February 2018
                : 03 May 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 4, References: 45, Pages: 7, Words: 0
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology
                herbal feed additives,growth performance,oncorhynchus mykiss,punica granatum,sustainable aquaculture


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