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      Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS) data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls.

          Results

          Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant.

          Conclusion

          Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

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          Most cited references36

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          Human Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Prenatal Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias: A Nested Case–Control Study

          Background Exposure to xenoestrogens during pregnancy may disturb the development and function of male sexual organs. Objective In this study we aimed to determine whether the combined effect of environmental estrogens measured as total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) is a risk factor for male urogenital malformations. Methods In a case–control study, nested in a mother–child cohort (n = 702) established at Granada University Hospital, we compared 50 newborns with diagnosis of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias with 114 boys without malformations matched by gestational age, date of birth, and parity. Controls did not differ from the total cohort in confounding variables. TEXB and levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides were measured in placenta tissues. Characteristics of parents, pregnancy, and birth were gathered by questionnaire. We used conditional and unconditional regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results TEXB from organohalogenated compounds was detectable in 72% and 54% of case and control placentas, respectively. Compared with controls, cases had an OR for detectable versus non-detectable TEXB of 2.82 (95% CI, 1.10–7.24). More pesticides were detected in cases than in controls (9.34 ± 3.19 vs. 6.97 ± 3.93). ORs for cases with detectable levels of pesticides, after adjusting for potential confounders in the conditional regression analysis, were o,p′-DDT (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.03–4.89), p,p′-DDT (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.21–5.72), lindane (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.36–8.38), mirex (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.22–6.66), and endosulfan alpha (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 0.99–4.82). Engagement of mothers in agriculture (OR = 3.47; 95% CI, 1.33–9.03), fathers’ occupational exposure to xenoestrogens (OR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.11–8.01), and history of previous stillbirths (OR = 4.20; 95% CI, 1.11–16.66) were also associated with risk of malformations. Conclusions We found an increased risk for male urogenital malformations related to the combined effect of environmental estrogens in placenta.
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            Associated anomalies in multi-malformed infants with cleft lip and palate: An epidemiologic study of nearly 6 million births in 23 EUROCAT registries.

            We studied 5,449 cases of cleft lip (CL) with or without cleft palate (CL/P) identified between 1980 and 2000 from the EUROCAT network of 23 registers (nearly 6 million births) in 14 European countries. We investigated specific types of defects associated with clefts. Among CL/P cases (prevalence = 9.1 per 10,000), 1,996 (36.6%) affected only the lip (CL) and 3,453 (63.4%) involved CL and palate (CLP). A total of 3,860 CL/P cases (70.8%) occurred as isolated anomalies and 1,589 (29.2%) were associated with other defects such as multiple congenital anomalies of unknown origin (970), chromosomal (455) and recognized syndromes (164). Associated malformations were more frequent in infants who had CLP (34.0%) than in infants with CL only (20.8%). Among multi-malformed infants, 2 unrelated anomalies were found in 351 cases, 3 in 242 cases, and 4 or more in 377 cases. Among 5,449 CL/P cases, 4,719 were live births (LB) (86.6%), 203 stillbirths (SB) (3.7%), while 508 (9.3%) were terminations of pregnancy (ToP). CL/P occurred significantly more frequently in males (M/F = 1.70), especially among total isolated cases (M/F = 1.87) and CLP isolated cases (M/F = 1.92). The study confirmed that musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system defects are frequently associated with CL/P. An association with reduction anomalies of the brain was found. This association suggests that clinicians should seek to identify structural brain anomalies in these patients with CL/P as the potential functional consequences may be important for rehabilitation and clinical management. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Health hazards and waste management.

              Different methods of waste management emit a large number of substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Raised incidence of low birth weight births has been related to residence near landfill sites, as has the occurrence of various congenital malformations. There is little evidence for an association with reproductive or developmental effects with proximity to incinerators. Studies of cancer incidence and mortality in populations around landfill sites or incinerators have been equivocal, with varying results for different cancer sites. Many of these studies lack good individual exposure information and data on potential confounders, such as socio-economic status. The inherent latency of diseases and migration of populations are often ignored. Waste management workers have been shown to have increased incidence of accidents and musculoskeletal problems. The health impacts of new waste management technologies and the increasing use of recycling and composting will require assessment and monitoring.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Health Geogr
                International Journal of Health Geographics
                BioMed Central
                1476-072X
                2009
                10 February 2009
                : 8
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]CREAGEN – Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [2 ]LARMA – Laboratory of Environmental Analysis, Surveying and Environmental Monitoring, Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
                [3 ]Local Health Unit of Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Paediatrics, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Reggio Emilia, Italy
                [5 ]IMER Registry, Department of Reproduction and Growth, St. Anna Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
                Article
                1476-072X-8-8
                10.1186/1476-072X-8-8
                2652434
                19208225
                ffc61d51-c5a4-40cd-8425-84631117d216
                Copyright © 2009 Vinceti et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 26 November 2008
                : 10 February 2009
                Categories
                Research

                Public health
                Public health

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