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      Association of CaMK2A and MeCP2 signaling pathways with cognitive ability in adolescents


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          The glutamatergic signaling pathway is involved in molecular learning and human cognitive ability. Specific single variants (SNVs, formerly single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in the genes encoding N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor subunits have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders by altering glutamate transmission. However, these variants associated with cognition and mental activity have rarely been explored in healthy adolescents. In this study, we screened for SNVs in the glutamatergic signaling pathway to identify genetic variants associated with cognitive ability. We found that SNVs in the subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors, including GRIA1, GRIN1, GRIN2B, GRIN2C, GRIN3A, GRIN3B, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα ( CaMK2A) are associated with cognitive function. Plasma CaMK2A level was correlated positively with the cognitive ability of Taiwanese senior high school students. We demonstrated that elevating CaMK2A increased its autophosphorylation at T286 and increased the expression of its downstream targets, including GluA1 and phosphor- GluA1 in vivo. Additionally, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a downstream target of CaMK2A, was found to activate the expression of CaMK2A, suggesting that MeCP2 and CaMK2A can form a positive feedback loop. In summary, two members of the glutamatergic signaling pathway, CaMK2A and MeCP2, are implicated in the cognitive ability of adolescents; thus, altering the expression of CaMK2A may affect cognitive ability in youth.

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          Developmental and regional expression in the rat brain and functional properties of four NMDA receptors.

          An in situ study of mRNAs encoding NMDA receptor subunits in the developing rat CNS revealed that, at all stages, the NR1 gene is expressed in virtually all neurons, whereas the four NR2 transcripts display distinct expression patterns. NR2B and NR2D mRNAs occur prenatally, whereas NR2A and NR2C mRNAs are first detected near birth. All transcripts except NR2D peak around P20. NR2D mRNA, present mainly in midbrain structures, peaks around P7 and thereafter decreases to adult levels. Postnatally, NR2B and NR2C transcript levels change in opposite directions in the cerebellar internal granule cell layer. In the adult hippocampus, NR2A and NR2B mRNAs are prominent in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells, but NR2C and NR2D mRNAs occur in different subsets of interneurons. Recombinant binary NR1-NR2 channels show comparable Ca2+ permeabilities, but marked differences in voltage-dependent Mg2+ block and in offset decay time constants. Thus, the distinct expression profiles and functional properties of NR2 subunits provide a basis for NMDA channel heterogeneity in the brain.
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            The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome.

            Anatomical, physiological and functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the cerebellum participates in the organization of higher order function, but there are very few descriptions of clinically relevant cases that address this possibility. We performed neurological examinations, bedside mental state tests, neuropsychological studies and anatomical neuroimaging on 20 patients with diseases confined to the cerebellum, and evaluated the nature and severity of the changes in neurological and mental function. Behavioural changes were clinically prominent in patients with lesions involving the posterior lobe of the cerebellum and the vermis, and in some cases they were the most noticeable aspects of the presentation. These changes were characterized by: impairment of executive functions such as planning, set-shifting, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning and working memory; difficulties with spatial cognition including visual-spatial organization and memory; personality change with blunting of affect or disinhibited and inappropriate behaviour; and language deficits including agrammatism and dysprosodia. Lesions of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum produced only minor changes in executive and visual-spatial functions. We have called this newly defined clinical entity the 'cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome'. The constellation of deficits is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellar modulation of neural circuits that link prefrontal, posterior parietal, superior temporal and limbic cortices with the cerebellum.
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              The SH-SY5Y cell line in Parkinson’s disease research: a systematic review

              Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a devastating and highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease for which only symptomatic treatment is available. In order to develop a truly effective disease-modifying therapy, improvement of our current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis and progression is crucial. For this purpose, standardization of research protocols and disease models is necessary. As human dopaminergic neurons, the cells mainly affected in PD, are difficult to obtain and maintain as primary cells, current PD research is mostly performed with permanently established neuronal cell models, in particular the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y lineage. This cell line is frequently chosen because of its human origin, catecholaminergic (though not strictly dopaminergic) neuronal properties, and ease of maintenance. However, there is no consensus on many fundamental aspects that are associated with its use, such as the effects of culture media composition and of variations in differentiation protocols. Here we present the outcome of a systematic review of scientific articles that have used SH-SY5Y cells to explore PD. We describe the cell source, culture conditions, differentiation protocols, methods/approaches used to mimic PD and the preclinical validation of the SH-SY5Y findings by employing alternative cellular and animal models. Thus, this overview may help to standardize the use of the SH-SY5Y cell line in PD research and serve as a future user’s guide. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13024-017-0149-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

                Author and article information

                Mol Brain
                Mol Brain
                Molecular Brain
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 October 2021
                4 October 2021
                : 14
                : 152
                [1 ]GRID grid.412090.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2158 7670, Science Education Center and Graduate Institute of Science Education, , National Taiwan Normal University, ; No. 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Rd., Taipei, 11677 Taiwan, Republic of China
                [2 ]GRID grid.412090.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2158 7670, Department of Life Science, , National Taiwan Normal University, ; Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]GRID grid.412090.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2158 7670, Institute of Marine Environment Science and Technology, , National Taiwan Normal University, ; Taipei, Taiwan
                [4 ]GRID grid.412090.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2158 7670, Department of Earth Science, , National Taiwan Normal University, ; Taipei, Taiwan
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 14 May 2021
                : 13 September 2021
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004663, Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan;
                Award ID: MOST 108-2511-H-003-059
                Award ID: MOST 107-2634-F-008-003
                Award ID: MOST 109-2321-B038-001
                Award ID: MOST 109-2320-B-003 -009
                Award ID: MOST 107-2511-H-003-010-MY3
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                glutamatergic signaling pathway,single-nucleotide variant (snv),methyl-cpg binding protein 2 (mecp2),calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase iiα (camk2a),cognitive function


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