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      Patient and Disease Characteristics Associated with Activation for Self-Management in Patients with Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Heart Failure and Chronic Renal Disease: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study

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          A substantial proportion of chronic disease patients do not respond to self-management interventions, which suggests that one size interventions do not fit all, demanding more tailored interventions. To compose more individualized strategies, we aim to increase our understanding of characteristics associated with patient activation for self-management and to evaluate whether these are disease-transcending. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in primary and secondary care in patients with type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-II), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) and Chronic Renal Disease (CRD). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we analyzed associations between self-management activation (13-item Patient Activation Measure; PAM-13) and a wide range of socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial determinants. Furthermore, we assessed whether the associations between the determinants and the PAM were disease-transcending by testing whether disease was an effect modifier. In addition, we identified determinants associated with low activation for self-management using logistic regression analysis. We included 1154 patients (53% response rate); 422 DM-II patients, 290 COPD patients, 223 HF patients and 219 CRD patients. Mean age was 69.6±10.9. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed 9 explanatory determinants of activation for self-management: age, BMI, educational level, financial distress, physical health status, depression, illness perception, social support and underlying disease, explaining a variance of 16.3%. All associations, except for social support, were disease transcending. This study explored factors associated with varying levels of activation for self-management. These results are a first step in supporting clinicians and researchers to identify subpopulations of chronic disease patients less likely to be engaged in self-management. Increased scientific efforts are needed to explain the greater part of the factors that contribute to the complex nature of patient activation for self-management.

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          Development and testing of a short form of the patient activation measure.

          The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 22-item measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. The measure was developed using Rasch analyses and is an interval level, unidimensional, Guttman-like measure. The current analysis is aimed at reducing the number of items in the measure while maintaining adequate precision. We relied on an iterative use of Rasch analysis to identify items that could be eliminated without loss of significant precision and reliability. With each item deletion, the item scale locations were recalibrated and the person reliability evaluated to check if and how much of a decline in precision of measurement resulted from the deletion of the item. The data used in the analysis were the same data used in the development of the original 22-item measure. These data were collected in 2003 via a telephone survey of 1,515 randomly selected adults. Principal Findings. The analysis yielded a 13-item measure that has psychometric properties similar to the original 22-item version. The scores for the 13-item measure range in value from 38.6 to 53.0 (on a theoretical 0-100 point scale). The range of values is essentially unchanged from the original 22-item version. Subgroup analysis suggests that there is a slight loss of precision with some subgroups. The results of the analysis indicate that the shortened 13-item version is both reliable and valid.
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            Using the outcome for imputation of missing predictor values was preferred.

            Epidemiologic studies commonly estimate associations between predictors (risk factors) and outcome. Most software automatically exclude subjects with missing values. This commonly causes bias because missing values seldom occur completely at random (MCAR) but rather selectively based on other (observed) variables, missing at random (MAR). Multiple imputation (MI) of missing predictor values using all observed information including outcome is advocated to deal with selective missing values. This seems a self-fulfilling prophecy. We tested this hypothesis using data from a study on diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We selected five predictors of pulmonary embolism without missing values. Their regression coefficients and standard errors (SEs) estimated from the original sample were considered as "true" values. We assigned missing values to these predictors--both MCAR and MAR--and repeated this 1,000 times using simulations. Per simulation we multiple imputed the missing values without and with the outcome, and compared the regression coefficients and SEs to the truth. Regression coefficients based on MI including outcome were close to the truth. MI without outcome yielded very biased--underestimated--coefficients. SEs and coverage of the 90% confidence intervals were not different between MI with and without outcome. Results were the same for MCAR and MAR. For all types of missing values, imputation of missing predictor values using the outcome is preferred over imputation without outcome and is no self-fulfilling prophecy.
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              Do increases in patient activation result in improved self-management behaviors?

              The purpose of this study is to determine whether patient activation is a changing or changeable characteristic and to assess whether changes in activation also are accompanied by changes in health behavior. To obtain variability in activation and self-management behavior, a controlled trial with chronic disease patients randomized into either intervention or control conditions was employed. In addition, changes in activation that occurred in the total sample were also examined for the study period. Using Mplus growth models, activation latent growth classes were identified and used in the analysis to predict changes in health behaviors and health outcomes. Survey data from the 479 participants were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. Positive change in activation is related to positive change in a variety of self-management behaviors. This is true even when the behavior in question is not being performed at baseline. When the behavior is already being performed at baseline, an increase in activation is related to maintaining a relatively high level of the behavior over time. The impact of the intervention, however, was less clear, as the increase in activation in the intervention group was matched by nearly equal increases in the control group. Results suggest that if activation is increased, a variety of improved behaviors will follow. The question still remains, however, as to what interventions will improve activation.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                7 May 2015
                : 10
                : 5
                [1 ]Department of rehabilitation, nursing science & sports, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Providence VA Medical Center and Brown University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: IB MS YK LS IE NW JT. Performed the experiments: IB YK LS IE JT. Analyzed the data: IB MS EM NW JT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: IB EM YK LS IE JT. Wrote the paper: IB EM MS NW JT. Data interpretation: IB MS EM NW JT. Final approval of manuscript: IB MS EM YK LS IE NW JT.


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Pages: 15
                This project was funded by ZonMw, The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, Grant 520001002. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
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                The data files are available from the Dryad database (accession number doi: 10.5061/dryad.rf3ht).



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