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      Prescription of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia in children: are we following the recommendations?

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To assess the adequacy of antibiotic prescription in children hospitalized for pneumonia in a reference pediatric hospital in Brazil.

          Methods

          This was a cross-sectional study involving children aged between 1 month and 5 years who were hospitalized between October 2010 and September 2013. The classification of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was based on the clinical and radiological criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis of antibiotic adequacy was performed according to the main guidelines on CAP treatment, which include the WHO guidelines, Brazilian Society of Pediatrics guidelines, and international guidelines (Pediatrics Infectious Diseases Society, the Infectious Disease Society of America, British Thoracic Society, and Consenso de la Sociedad latinoamericana de Infectología). A multivariate analysis was performed including variables that have statistical significance of P≤0.25 in the bivariate analysis.

          Results

          The majority of the 452 hospitalized children were classified as having severe or very severe CAP (85.18%), and inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy was started in 26.10% (118/452) of them. Ampicillin was the most used empiric antibiotic therapy (62.17%) for pneumonia, followed by a combination of ampicillin and associated with gentamicin. The initially proposed regimen was modified in 29.6% of the patients, and the most frequent change was the replacement of ampicillin by oxacillin combined with chloramphenicol. The median hospitalization time was 8.5 days, and the lethality rate was 1.55%. There was no statistical difference in adequacy in relation to the severity of pneumonia or degree of malnutrition. In the bivariate analysis, inadequacy of antibiotic therapy regimen was higher in patients undergoing oxygen therapy ( P<0.05), which was given to 219 patients (48.45%). Pleural effusion was observed in 118 patients (26.11%) and was associated with higher prescription inadequacy, and it was the only factor that remained in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio =8.89; 95% confidence interval 5.20–15.01).

          Conclusion

          Adherence to the main guidelines for antimicrobial therapy according to the childhood CAP was unsatisfactory. Compliance with the guidelines is essential for both the management of pneumonia cases and the decrease in bacterial resistance and it is one of the cornerstone of WHO police of controlling antibiotic resistance.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia.

          Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million), with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each). Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia.
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            Standardized interpretation of paediatric chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in epidemiological studies.

            Although radiological pneumonia is used as an outcome measure in epidemiological studies, there is considerable variability in the interpretation of chest radiographs. A standardized method for identifying radiological pneumonia would facilitate comparison of the results of vaccine trials and epidemiological studies of pneumonia. A WHO working group developed definitions for radiological pneumonia. Inter-observer variability in categorizing a set of 222 chest radiographic images was measured by comparing the readings made by 20 radiologists and clinicians with a reference reading. Intra-observer variability was measured by comparing the initial readings of a randomly chosen subset of 100 radiographs with repeat readings made 8-30 days later. Of the 222 images, 208 were considered interpretable. The reference reading categorized 43% of these images as showing alveolar consolidation or pleural effusion (primary end-point pneumonia); the proportion thus categorized by each of the 20 readers ranged from 8% to 61%. Using the reference reading as the gold standard, 14 of the 20 readers had sensitivity and specificity of > 0.70 in identifying primary end-point pneumonia; 13 out of 20 readers had a kappa index of > 0.6 compared with the reference reading. For the 92 radiographs deemed to be interpretable among the 100 images used for intra-observer variability, 19 out of 20 readers had a kappa index of > 0.6. Using standardized definitions and training, it is possible to achieve agreement in identifying radiological pneumonia, thus facilitating the comparison of results of epidemiological studies that use radiological pneumonia as an outcome.
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              The Definition of Pneumonia, the Assessment of Severity, and Clinical Standardization in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Study

              To develop a case definition for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, we sought a widely acceptable classification that was linked to existing pneumonia research and focused on very severe cases. We began with the World Health Organization’s classification of severe/very severe pneumonia and refined it through literature reviews and a 2-stage process of expert consultation. PERCH will study hospitalized children, aged 1–59 months, with pneumonia who present with cough or difficulty breathing and have either severe pneumonia (lower chest wall indrawing) or very severe pneumonia (central cyanosis, difficulty breastfeeding/drinking, vomiting everything, convulsions, lethargy, unconsciousness, or head nodding). It will exclude patients with recent hospitalization and children with wheeze whose indrawing resolves after bronchodilator therapy. The PERCH investigators agreed upon standard interpretations of the symptoms and signs. These will be maintained by a clinical standardization monitor who conducts repeated instruction at each site and by recurrent local training and testing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                14 June 2016
                : 12
                : 983-988
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira – IMIP, Recife, PE, Brazil
                [2 ]Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde – FPS, Recife, PE, Brazil
                [3 ]Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima, Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor, Fernando Figueira, Rua dos Coelhos, 300, Boa Vista Recife, PE, Brazil, Tel +55 81 2122 4166, Email eduardojorge@ 123456imip.org.br
                Article
                tcrm-12-983
                10.2147/TCRM.S101709
                4913964
                27366076
                © 2016 Fonseca Lima et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                health services, antibiotic therapy, pneumonia, children

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