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      Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder among Adults Using Self-Reported DSM-5 Criteria

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          The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria.


          Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses.


          The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed significantly higher scores than healthy controls in all nine psychiatric symptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001).


          The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments.

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          Most cited references 38

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          An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

          For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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            Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

            Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
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              The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

              To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

                Author and article information

                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investigation
                Korean Neuropsychiatric Association
                January 2016
                27 October 2015
                : 13
                : 1
                : 58-66
                [1 ]Laboratory of Addiction Policy, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Psychology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
                [4 ]Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
                [5 ]Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
                [6 ]Nottingham Trent University, Psychology Division, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
                [7 ]Eulji Addiction Institute, Gangnam Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
                [8 ]Chungmugong Leadership Center, Naval Education and Training Command, Republic of Korea Navy, Changwon, Republic of Korea.
                [9 ]Korea Institute on Behavioral Addictions, Easy Brain Clinic, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
                [10 ]Health Care & Information Research Institute, Namseoul University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sam-Wook Choi, MD, PhD. Korea Institute on Behavioral Addictions, Easy Brain Clinic, F2, Seojeon B/D, 173 Saimdang-ro, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06626, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82-2-583-9080, Fax: +82-2-583-9082, peaceinu@
                Copyright © 2016 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Ministry of Health and Welfare, CrossRef;
                Award ID: HI12 C0113
                Funded by: Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, CrossRef;
                Award ID: K83884
                Award ID: K111938
                Funded by: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, CrossRef;
                Original Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                dsm-5, internet gaming disorder, psychiatric symptoms


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