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      Complement activation in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae associated hemolytic uremic syndrome

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          Hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by invasive pneumococcal disease (P-HUS) is rare in children and adolescents, but accompanied by high mortality in the acute phase and complicated by long-term renal sequelae. Abnormalities in the alternative complement pathway may additionally be contributing to the course of the disease but also to putative treatment options.


          Retrospective study to assess clinical course and laboratory data of the acute phase and outcome of children with P-HUS.


          We report on seven children (median age 12 months, range 3–28 months) diagnosed with P-HUS. Primary organ manifestation was meningitis in four and pneumonia in three patients. All patients required dialysis which could be discontinued in five of them after a median of 25 days. In two patients, broad functional and genetic complement analysis was performed and revealed alternative pathway activation and risk haplotypes in both. Three patients were treated with the complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab. During a median follow-up time of 11.3 years, one patient died due to infectious complications after transplantation. Two patients showed no signs of renal sequelae.


          Although pathophysiology in P-HUS remains as yet incompletely understood, disordered complement regulation seems to provide a clue to additional insights for pathology, diagnosis, and even targeted treatment.

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          Most cited references 18

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          An international consensus approach to the management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children.

          Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) emerged during the last decade as a disease largely of complement dysregulation. This advance facilitated the development of novel, rational treatment options targeting terminal complement activation, e.g., using an anti-C5 antibody (eculizumab). We review treatment and patient management issues related to this therapeutic approach. We present consensus clinical practice recommendations generated by HUS International, an international expert group of clinicians and basic scientists with a focused interest in HUS. We aim to address the following questions of high relevance to daily clinical practice: Which complement investigations should be done and when? What is the importance of anti-factor H antibody detection? Who should be treated with eculizumab? Is plasma exchange therapy still needed? When should eculizumab therapy be initiated? How and when should complement blockade be monitored? Can the approved treatment schedule be modified? What approach should be taken to kidney and/or combined liver-kidney transplantation? How should we limit the risk of meningococcal infection under complement blockade therapy? A pressing question today regards the treatment duration. We discuss the need for prospective studies to establish evidence-based criteria for the continuation or cessation of anticomplement therapy in patients with and without identified complement mutations.
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            New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD.

            The Schwartz formula was devised in the mid-1970s to estimate GFR in children. Recent data suggest that this formula currently overestimates GFR as measured by plasma disappearance of iohexol, likely a result of a change in methods used to measure creatinine. Here, we developed equations to estimate GFR using data from the baseline visits of 349 children (aged 1 to 16 yr) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort. Median iohexol-GFR (iGFR) was 41.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (interquartile range 32.0 to 51.7), and median serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dl. We performed linear regression analyses assessing precision, goodness of fit, and accuracy to develop improvements in the GFR estimating formula, which was based on height, serum creatinine, cystatin C, blood urea nitrogen, and gender. The best equation was: GFR(ml/min per 1.73 m(2))=39.1[height (m)/Scr (mg/dl)](0.516) x [1.8/cystatin C (mg/L)](0.294)[30/BUN (mg/dl)](0.169)[1.099](male)[height (m)/1.4](0.188). This formula yielded 87.7% of estimated GFR within 30% of the iGFR, and 45.6% within 10%. In a test set of 168 CKiD patients at 1 yr of follow-up, this formula compared favorably with previously published estimating equations for children. Furthermore, with height measured in cm, a bedside calculation of 0.413*(height/serum creatinine), provides a good approximation to the estimated GFR formula. Additional studies of children with higher GFR are needed to validate these formulas for use in screening all children for CKD.
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              2016 European Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

              Increasing prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents has become a significant public health issue driving a considerable amount of research. Aspects discussed in this document include advances in the definition of HTN in 16 year or older, clinical significance of isolated systolic HTN in youth, the importance of out of office and central blood pressure measurement, new risk factors for HTN, methods to assess vascular phenotypes, clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment strategies among others. The recommendations of the present document synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent the best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. In addition, as they call attention to the burden of HTN in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease, these guidelines should encourage public policy makers to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents.

                Author and article information

                Pediatr Nephrol
                Pediatr Nephrol
                Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                4 February 2021
                4 February 2021
                : 36
                : 5
                : 1311-1315
                [1 ]GRID grid.6363.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Nephrology and Metabolic Diseases, , Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, ; Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.6190.e, ISNI 0000 0000 8580 3777, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, , University of Cologne, ; Cologne, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.6363.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Immunology and Intensive Care Medicine, , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funded by: Projekt DEAL
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                hemolytic uremic syndrome, complement, eculizumab, children, streptococcus pneumonia


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