Hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by invasive pneumococcal disease (P-HUS) is rare in children and adolescents, but accompanied by high mortality in the acute phase and complicated by long-term renal sequelae. Abnormalities in the alternative complement pathway may additionally be contributing to the course of the disease but also to putative treatment options.
Retrospective study to assess clinical course and laboratory data of the acute phase and outcome of children with P-HUS.
We report on seven children (median age 12 months, range 3–28 months) diagnosed with P-HUS. Primary organ manifestation was meningitis in four and pneumonia in three patients. All patients required dialysis which could be discontinued in five of them after a median of 25 days. In two patients, broad functional and genetic complement analysis was performed and revealed alternative pathway activation and risk haplotypes in both. Three patients were treated with the complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab. During a median follow-up time of 11.3 years, one patient died due to infectious complications after transplantation. Two patients showed no signs of renal sequelae.