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      The genetic characterization of fall armyworm populations in Ecuador and its implications to migration and pest management in the northern regions of South America

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          Abstract

          The fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda) is a moth pest native to the Western Hemisphere that has recently become a global problem, invading Africa, Asia, and Australia. The species has a broad host range, long-distance migration capability, and a propensity for the generation of pesticide resistance traits that make it a formidable invasive threat and a difficult pest to control. While fall armyworm migration has been extensively studied in North America, where annual migrations of thousands of kilometers are the norm, migration patterns in South America are less understood. As a first step to address this issue we have been genetically characterizing fall armyworm populations in Ecuador, a country in the northern portion of South America that has not been extensively surveyed for this pest. These studies confirm and extend past findings indicating similarities in the fall armyworm populations from Ecuador, Trinidad-Tobago, Peru, and Bolivia that suggest substantial migratory interactions. Specifically, we found that populations throughout Ecuador are genetically homogeneous, indicating that the Andes mountain range is not a long-term barrier to fall armyworm migration. Quantification of genetic variation in an intron sequence describe patterns of similarity between fall armyworm from different locations in South America with implications for how migration might be occurring. In addition, we unexpectedly found these observations only apply to one subset of fall armyworm (the C-strain), as the other group (R-strain) was not present in Ecuador. The results suggest differences in migration behavior between fall armyworm groups in South America that appear to be related to differences in host plant preferences.

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          Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico.

          Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., event TC1507 produces the Cry1F protein to provide protection from feeding by several important lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Reports of reduced field performance against this species in Puerto Rico were investigated, and laboratory bioassays showed that S. frugiperda collected from the affected area exhibited lower sensitivity to the Cry1F protein compared with typical colonies from other regions. The resistance was shown to be autosomally inherited and highly recessive. The Puerto Rico colony was shown to be moderately less sensitive than susceptible laboratory strains to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, but the differences in sensitivity were dramatically smaller than for Cry1F. Potential contributory factors to the emergence of resistance to Cry1F in Puerto Rico populations of S. frugiperda include the tropical island geography, unusually large population sizes in 2006, and drought conditions reducing the availability of alternative hosts. In response to this resistance incident, the technology providers have stopped commercial sales of TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico pending potential reversion to susceptibility.
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            Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

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              Host-associated Genetic Differentiation in Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a Sibling Species Complex?

               D. Pashley (1986)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                3 August 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
                [2 ] National Institute of Agriculture Research (INIAP), Quito, Ecuador
                [3 ] Research Consultant, Guayaquil, Ecuador
                National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-11128
                10.1371/journal.pone.0236759
                7398513
                32745105

                This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Pages: 18
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007917, Agricultural Research Service;
                Award ID: 6036-2200-30-00D
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100010975, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias;
                Award ID: MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100010975, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias;
                Award ID: MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100010975, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias;
                Award ID: MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100010975, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias;
                Award ID: MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100010975, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias;
                Award ID: MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100010975, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias;
                Award ID: MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000200, United States Agency for International Development;
                Award ID: 908-0210-012
                Award Recipient :
                The author R.N.N. received support came from the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (6036-2200-30-00D) and USAID PASA (908-0210-012). The authors E.C., B.N., J.P., C.B., M.A., and S.G.C. received support from the National Institute of Agriculture Research (INIAP), Ecuador, authorized by the agreement between the INIAP and the Ministry of Environment of Ecuador reference number MAE-DNB-CM-2015-0024.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Heredity
                Genetic Mapping
                Haplotypes
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Model Organisms
                Maize
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Model Organisms
                Maize
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
                Maize
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Plant and Algal Models
                Maize
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Ecuador
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
                Rice
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Plant and Algal Models
                Rice
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Population Genetics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Population Genetics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Genetics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Animal Migration
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Animal Migration
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Animal Migration
                Custom metadata
                Relevant DNA sequence data are available in GenBank (accession numbers provided in manuscript). All other relevant data are included in the manuscript.

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