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Double Dipping in Hybrid Open Access – Chimera or Reality?

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The pros and cons of hybrid open access are heavily disputed. A main point of discussion is whether ‘double dipping’ takes place, i.e. paying twice to publish and read the same article. To prove publishers’ assertions that they do not double dip, a survey was conducted of 24 publishers with detailed questions about their pricing policy using concrete examples. The outcome is quite sobering: the results range from partial double dipping to full double dipping, and in no instance did a ‘no double-dipping’ policy mean that no double dipping takes place.

Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

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Abstract Background: Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC) is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organization of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. Methods: This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of primary care and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997-2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order identify if there is a possible relation between structure of PC to the health of the populations. Results: When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC(78%) the least information was available for “Governance of PC”(40%). With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. Conclusions & Discussion: There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on 1. If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status 2. What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross- island analysis and 3.Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

Review of ‘Measures to minimize cross-contamination risks in Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product manufacturing’

ScienceOpen SO Reviews Review    Rated 2.5 of 5. Belaïd Sekkali on 2015-05-19 (2014)

The paper describes one aspect of the several safety issues encountered by the manufacturer during cell-based medicinal products production. The authors discuss concepts on how to minimize and prevent possible cross contamination, that is considered, together with contamination, as the …

Review of ‘Flow Cytometry for Rapid Detection of Salmonella spp. in Seed Sprouts’

ScienceOpen SO Reviews Review    Rated 3 of 5. Monica Delgado on 2015-05-12 (2014)
The manuscript requires a number of corrections and also some additional experiments

Utility of characters evolving at diverse rates of evolution to resolve quartet trees with unequal branch lengths: analytical predictions of long-branch effects

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Background The detection and avoidance of “long-branch effects” in phylogenetic inference represents a longstanding challenge for molecular phylogenetic investigations. A consequence of parallelism and convergence, long-branch effects arise in phylogenetic inference when there is unequal molecular divergence among lineages, and they can positively mislead inference based on parsimony especially, but also inference based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Long-branch effects have been exhaustively examined by simulation studies that have compared the performance of different inference methods in specific model trees and branch length spaces. Results In this paper, by generalizing the phylogenetic signal and noise analysis to quartets with uneven subtending branches, we quantify the utility of molecular characters for resolution of quartet phylogenies via parsimony. Our quantification incorporates contributions toward the correct tree from either signal or homoplasy (i.e. “the right result for either the right reason or the wrong reason”). We also characterize a highly conservative lower bound of utility that incorporates contributions to the correct tree only when they correspond to true, unobscured parsimony-informative sites (i.e. “the right result for the right reason”). We apply the generalized signal and noise analysis to classic quartet phylogenies in which long-branch effects can arise due to unequal rates of evolution or an asymmetrical topology. Application of the analysis leads to identification of branch length conditions in which inference will be inconsistent and reveals insights regarding how to improve sampling of molecular loci and taxa in order to correctly resolve phylogenies in which long-branch effects are hypothesized to exist. Conclusions The generalized signal and noise analysis provides analytical prediction of utility of characters evolving at diverse rates of evolution to resolve quartet phylogenies with unequal branch lengths. The analysis can be applied to identifying characters evolving at appropriate rates to resolve phylogenies in which long-branch effects are hypothesized to occur.

The dangers of hemilithotomy positioning on traction tables: case report of a well-leg drop foot after contralateral femoral nailing

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Background Postoperative contralateral morbidities after fracture fixation surgery by hemilithotomy positioning on traction table is uncommon. We’d report a case of unexpected common peroneal nerve palsy developed on the contralateral side manifesting with drop foot after a common orthopedic femoral nailing. Case report A 28-year-old female sustained an unusual common peroneal nerve palsy manifesting contralateral drop foot after prolonged femoral nailing. Although the initial presentations were similar to the notorious well-leg compartment syndrome, a benign course with complete recovery in functions was observed 3 months later. After neurophysiologic exam and review of pertinent literature, this iatrogenic and transient dysfunction was delineated to be position-related neuropraxia. Conclusion Position adjustment at intervals or complete avoidance of prolonged knee hyperflexion is recommended to prevent contralateral common peroneal nerve morbidity.