124
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares

      From January 2024, all of our readers will be able to access every part of ROAPE as well as its archive without a paywall. This will make ROAPE accessible to a much wider readership, especially in Africa. We need subscriptions and donations to make this revolutionary intiative work. 

      Subscribe and Donate now!

       

      scite_
       
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The political economy of the ‘green revolution’ in Africa

      Published
      research-article
       
      Review of African Political Economy
      Review of African Political Economy
      Bookmark

            Abstract

            This article sets out to survey the extent to which new agricultural technologies associated with ‘Green Revolution’ (the introduction of high yielding varieties of foodgrains and/or their associated biochemical and mechanical technologies) have been introduced in Africa and attempts a preliminary assessment of their economic and social effects. There is now significant evidence of the introduction and adoption of higher yielding varieties of maize, wheat and rice in Africa, as well as the adoption of other technological innovations in irrigation and mechanisation, albeit with widely varying degrees of success and with many instances of failure. It is noted that there are many standard technical explanations associated with the adoption of new technologies in agriculture, in particular, low levels of credit, poor supply of inputs, inadequate, faulty or no irrigation, poor extension advice, and low producer prices, as well as the poor state of the relationship between agronomic research and farm level innovation.

            However, the evidence so far collected for Africa suggests that a substantial part of the explanation of whether adoption of innovations takes place or not, and of their degree of success, is the nature of the social relations of production, relations not simply of class or strata, but also of gender. The major technical constraint on successful innovation adoption as revealed by most, if not all, of the studies surveyed turns out to be that of labour supply. The extent to which that constraint can be resolved turns not on increasing family labour supply, which often means increasing the intensity of female labour, but in hiring labour. The very hiring of labour presupposes the existence of a social formation in which free wage labour exists, or In which it can be created. Its creation will depend on the degree to which those interests which seek toaccumulate through agricultural innovation have power and can exercise that power through the State.

            The first section of this article is an overview of various issues of theory and evidence involved in surveying the green revolution in Africa. The second section surveys the introduction of these new technologies into Africa and the final section draws some conclusions for policy and further analysis.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            crea20
            CREA
            Review of African Political Economy
            Review of African Political Economy
            0305-6244
            1740-1720
            October 1988
            : 15
            : 42
            : 59-75
            Article
            8703776 Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 15, No. 42, 1988, pp. 59-75
            10.1080/03056248808703776
            851b2f50-a31b-48e2-b1cc-a9372723cd03

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History
            Page count
            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 83, Pages: 17
            Categories
            Original Articles

            Sociology,Economic development,Political science,Labor & Demographic economics,Political economics,Africa

            References

            1. Adams A.. 1978. . ‘The Senegal River Valley: what kind of change’. . Review of African Political Economy . ,

            2. Ahmed I. and Kinsey B.. , eds. 1986. . Farm Equipment Innovations in Eastern and Central Southern Africa, Brookfield . , Vermont : : Gower. W. Allan. .

            3. The African Husbandman . , Edinburgh and London : : Oliver and Boyd. .

            4. Andrae G. and Beckman B.. 1985. . The Wheat Trap . , London : : Zed Press. .

            5. Anthony K. R. M., Johnston B. F., Jones W. and Uchendu V. C.. 1979. . Agricultural Change in Tropical Africa . , Ithaca and London : : Cornell University Press. .

            6. Barnett A.. 1984. . ’Small scale irrigation in sub‐Saharan Africa: sparse lessons, big problems, any solutions?’. . Public Administration and Development . , : 1

            7. Bassett T.. 1988. . ‘Development Theory and Reality: the World Bank in Northern Cote d'Ivoire’. . Review of African Political Economy . ,

            8. Beckman B.. 1986. . “‘Bakalori: peasants versus state and industry in Nigeria’. ”. In The Social and Economic Effects of Large Dams . Edited by: Goldsmith E. and Hildyard N.. Vol. 2 vols. ,

            9. Bernstein H.. “‘Capitalism and petty commodity production’. ”. In Social Analysis . , ((Special Issue Series)).

            10. Billing K. J.. 1985. . Zimbabwe and the CGIAR Centres: A Study of their Collaboration in Agricultural Research . , Washington : : CGIAR. .

            11. Bigot Y.. 1985. . ‘La culture avec traction animale’. . Afrique Agriculture . , Vol. 122:: 16––30. .

            12. Blyn G.. 1983. . ‘The green revolution revisited’. . Economic Development and Cultural Change . , Vol. 31:: 4

            13. Byres T.. 1979. . “The new technology, class formation and class action in the Indian countryside’. . Journal of Peasant Studies . , Vol. 8: July;

            14. Chipande G. H. R.. 1987. . ‘Innovation adoption among female‐headed households: the case of Malawi’. . Development and Change . , Vol. 18:: 2

            15. Clapham C.. 1987. . ‘Revolutionary socialist development in Ethiopia’. . African Affairs . , Vol. 86:: 343

            16. Clough P. and Williams G.. 1987. . “‘Decoding Berg: the World Bank in rural Northern Nigeria’. ”. In State, Oil and Agriculture in Nigeria . , Edited by: Watts M.. Berkeley : : Institute of International Studies, University of California. .

            17. Cohen J.. 1975. . ‘Effects of green revolution strategies on tenants and small scale landowners in the Chilalo area of Ethiopia’. . Journal of Developing Areas . , Vol. 9:: 3

            18. Gupta B. Das. . 1977. . Agrarian Change and the New Technology in India . , Geneva : : United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD). .

            19. Delgado C. and McIntire J.. 1982. . ‘Constraints on ox cultivation in the Sahel’. . American Journal of Agricultural Economics . , Vol. 64:

            20. Dey J. and International Rice Research Institute. . 1985. . “‘Women in African rice farming systems’. ”. In Women in Rice Farming . , Aldershot : : Gower. .

            21. Dommen B.. , ed. 1977. . Agriculture and the New Technology in Tropical Africa . , Geneva: : : UNRISD. .

            22. Dunmoye R. A.. 1982. . ‘The greening of capitalist agriculture in Nigeria’. . Ufahamu . , Vol. 12:: 1

            23. Farringdon and Riches. . 1984. . ‘Draught power in Botswana’. . Bulletin of Agricultural Research in Botswana . ,

            24. Feldman D. and Lawrence P.. 1975. . “‘The Social and Economic Implications of the Introduction of High‐Yielding Varieities of Foodgrains: Africa Report’. ”. Geneva : : UNRISD. .

            25. FAO. . 1986. . “‘Irrigation in sub‐Saharan Africa: a study with partial reference to food production’. ”. Rome : : FAO Investment Centre. .

            26. Fortmann L.. 1984. . “‘The performance of the extension services in Botswana’. ”. Agricultural Administration Network, Overseas Development Institute. .

            27. Fresco L.. 1987. . “‘Cassava shifting cultivation: a systems approach to agricultural technical development in Africa’. ”. Amsterdam : : Royal Tropical Institute. .

            28. Friis‐Hansen E.. “‘Changes in Land Tenure and Land Use Since Villagization and Their Impact on Peasant Agricultural Production in Tanzania: the case of the Southern Highlands’. ”. Copenhagen and Dar es Salaam. .

            29. Gerhart J.. 1975. . “‘The Diffusion of Hybrid Maize in Western Kenya’. ”. Mexico City : : CIMMYT (Centra Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo). .

            30. Geza S.. 1977. . “‘Socio‐economic implications of introducing high‐yielding maize in Zambia: a case study of the Kwenje and Pemba areas’. ”. Edited by: Dommen B..

            31. Goldsmith E. and Hildyard N.. , eds. 1986. . The Social and Economic Effects of large dams . , Vol. 2 vols. , Camelford : : Wadebridge Ecological Centre. .

            32. Goody J.. 1980. . ‘Rice burning and the green revolution in northern Ghana’. . Journal of Development Studies . , Vol. 16((2))

            33. Griffin K.. 1979. . The Political Economy of Agrarian Change . , London and Basingstoke : : Macmillan. .

            34. Graham R.. 1986. . “‘Ghana's Volta River resettlement scheme’. ”. Edited by: Goldsmith E. and Hildyard N..

            35. Guyer J.. 1980a. . ‘Female farming and the evolution of food production patterns amongst the Beti of south‐central Cameroon’. . Africa . , Vol. 50:: 4

            36. 1980b. . ‘Food, cocoa and the division of labour by sex in two West African societies’. . Comparative Studies in Society and History . , Vol. 22:

            37. 1984. . ‘Women's work and production systems: a review of two reports on the agricultural crisis’. . Review of African Political Economy . ,

            38. Harrison P.. 1987. . The Greening of Africa: Breaking through in the battle for land and food . , London : : Paladin. .

            39. Hecht R. M.. 1983. . ‘The Ivory Coast economic “miracle”: what benefits for peasant farmers?’. . Journal of Modern African Studies . , Vol. 21:: 1

            40. Heyer J., Williams G. and Roberts P.. , eds. 1981. . Rural Development in Tropical Africa . , London and Basingstoke : : Macmillan. .

            41. Howell J.. 1985. . “‘Managing agricultural extension, the T & V system in practice’. ”. Agricultural Administration Network, Overseas Development Institute. .

            42. Keller J.. “‘Assessment of the Rift Valley Pilot Rice Project and Recommendations for Follow‐on Activities’. ”. (Tanzania‐USAID Project No. 698–0410. 3/Water Management Synthesis Project). Utah State University. .

            43. Koopman‐Henn J.. 1983. . ‘Feeding the cities and feeding the peasants: what role for Africa's women farmers?’. . World Development . , Vol. 11:: 12

            44. Lipton M.. 1985. . “‘The place of agricultural research in the development of sub‐Saharan Africa’. ”. Brighton : : IDS. .

            45. Lipton M. and Longhurst R.. 1985. . “‘Modern Varieties. ”. In International Agricultural Research and the Poor . , Washington : : CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research). .

            46. Loevinsohn M. E.. 1987. . ‘Insecticide Use and Increased Mortality in Rural Central Luzon, Philippines’. . Lancet . , Vol. I:: 1359––1362. .

            47. Low A.. 1986. . Agricultural Development in Southern Africa: Farm Household Economics and the Food Crisis . , London : : James Currey. .

            48. Martin S.. 1988. . Palm Oil and Protest: An Economic History of the Ngwa Region, South Eastern Nigeria, 1800–1980 . , Cambridge University Press. .

            49. Mathieu P.. 1985. . ‘L'Amenagement de la valle du fleuve Senegal’. . Mondes et Developpement . , Vol. 13:: 52

            50. Mijindadi N. B. and Njoku N. B.. 1985. . ‘Adoption of new farm technologies by agricultural cooperative rice societies in Kano, Nigeria’. . International Journal for Development Technology . , Vol. 3((3))

            51. Moris J.. 1985. . “‘Reforming agricultural extension and research services in Africa’. ”. Agricultural Administration Network, Overseas Development Institute. .

            52. Mounier F.. 1986. . “‘The Senegal River Scheme: development for whom?’. ”. Edited by: Goldsmith E. and Hildyard N..

            53. Norman D. W.. 1974. . ‘Rationalising mixed cropping under indigenous conditions: the example of northern Nigeria’. . Journal of Development Studies . , Vol. 11:: 1

            54. O'Brien J.. 1986. . “‘Sowing the seeds of famine: the political economy of food deficits in the Sudan’. ”. In World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa . Edited by: Lawrence P.. James Currey , London :

            55. Okuneye P. A.. 1985. . ‘Farmer contact and the demonstration of improved farming practices in Nigeria’. . Agricultural Systems . , Vol. 18:: 4

            56. Oluch‐Kosura W.. 1986. . ‘Evolution and prospects for farm mechanisation in Kenya’. . East African Economic Review . , Vol. 2:: 1

            57. Osuntogun A.. 1986. . ‘The adoption of innovation by cooperative farmers in Nigeria’. . Tropical Agriculture . , Vol. 63:: 2

            58. Patrick N. A.. 1984. . “‘Adoption of a new technology and problems encountered by a Nuba village’. ”. Washington , , USA:

            59. Pearse A.. 1980. . Seeds of Plenty, Seeds of Want . , Oxford : : University Press. .

            60. Pingali P., Bigot Y. and Binswanger H.. 1987. . Agricultural Mechanization and the Evolution of Farming Systems in Sub‐Saharan Africa . , Baltimore and London : : Johns Hopkins University Press for the World Bank. .

            61. Pollard N.. 1986. . “‘Sudan's Gezira Scheme: a study in failure’. ”. Edited by: Goldsmith E. and Hildyard N..

            62. Rasmussen T.. 1985. . “‘The green revolution in southern Tanzania’. ”. Copenhagen :

            63. Richards P.. 1985. . Indigenous Agricultural Revolution . , London : : Hutchinson. .

            64. 1986. . Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice Farming System . , London : : Allen and Unwin. .

            65. Ruthenberg H.. 1980. . Farming Systems in the Tropics . , Oxford University Press. .

            66. Ruttan V. and Binswanger H.. 1978. . “‘Induced innovation and the green revolution’. ”. In Induced Innovation: Technology, Institutions and Development . , Edited by: Binswanger H.. Baltimore and London : : Johns Hopkins University Press. .

            67. Salau A. T.. 1986. . ‘River basin planning as a strategy for rural development in Nigeria’. . Journal of Rural Studies . , Vol. 2:: 4

            68. Sender J. and Smith S.. 1986. . The Development of Capitalism in Africa . , London : : Methuen. .

            69. Stahl M.. 1973. . “‘Contradictions in African Development: a study of three minimum package projects in southern Ethiopia’. ”. Uppsala :

            70. 1977. . “‘New Seeds in Old Soil: a study of the land reform process in western Wollega, Ethiopia, 1975–6’. ”. Uppsala : : Nordiska Afrikainstitut. .

            71. ‘Capturing the Peasants through Cooperatives: the case of Ethiopia’. In: . Seventh World Congress of the International Rural Sociology Association; . June‐July. ; , Bologna .

            72. Starkey P.. 1981. . “‘Farming with work oxen in Sierra Leone’. ”. (Sierra Leone work oxen project). Njala University College, University of Sierra Leone and Ministry of Agriculture and Food. .

            73. Stock R.. 1986. . ‘"Disease and Development” or “The Underdevelopment of Health”: a critical review of geographical perspective's on African health problems’. . Social Science and Medicine . , Vol. 23((7))

            74. Sutherland A.. 1986. . “‘Extension workers, small scale farmers and agricultural research: a case study in Kabwe Rural, Central Province, Zambia’. ”. Overseas Development Institute. .

            75. Thirtle C.. ‘Can the green revolution spread to Africa?: a review of agricultural research in Kenya’. In: . paper prepared for the Development Studies Association Annual Conference; . Manchester .

            76. Tiffen M.. 1976. . The Enterprising Peasant: Economic Development in Gombe Emirate, Northeastern State, Nigeria 1900–1968 . , London : : HMSO. .

            77. Wallace T.. 1980. . ‘Agricultural Projects and Land in Northern Nigeria’. . Review of African Political Economy . ,

            78. Heyer J., Roberts P. and Williams G.. , eds. 1981. . “‘The Kano River Project, Nigeria: the impact of an irrigation scheme on productivity and welfare’. ”.

            79. Watts M. and Bassett T.. 1985. . ‘Crisis and change in African agriculture: a comparative study of Ivory Coast and Nigeria’,. . African Studies Review . , Vol. 28((4))

            80. Williams G.. 1984. . “‘Why is there no Agrarian Capitalism in Nigeria?’. ”. Oxford : : St. Peter's College. .

            81. Williams G.. ‘The World Bank in Rural Nigeria Revisited’. . Review of African Political Economy . ,

            82. Weiner D.. 1988. . “‘Land and agricultural development’. ”. In Zimbabwe's Prospects . , Edited by: Stoneman C.. London : : Macmillan. .

            83. Weintraub L.. 1977. . “‘Agricultural change in Sierra Leone: a case study of the Inland Valley Swamp Rice Scheme’. ”. Edited by: Dommen B..

            Comments

            Comment on this article