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      External collusion with kleptocracy: can Zaïre recapture its stolen wealth?

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      Review of African Political Economy
      Review of African Political Economy
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            Abstract

            For 28 years, Mobutu Sese Seko has carefully and thoughtfully refined his system for transforming the public resources of Zaïre into private wealth, while using bribery, coercion and violence to thwart all movements for change. The consequences of his system, commonly known as ‘kleptocracy’ or government by theft, are well known: immiseration of the people; destruction of the nation's infrastructure; enrichment of Mobutu and his collaborators; the transformation of Zaïre into the prime staging ground for foreign intervention against other African nations. This article will focus neither on the consequences of kleptocracy nor the growing opposition which, for the past three years, has aggressively but so far unsuccessfully challenged Mobutu's rule.

            It will instead examine questions of causation and culpability. It will identify some of the architects, beneficiaries and allies of kleptocracy; analyse the methods used for misdirecting Zaïre's wealth, and catalogue the benefits Mobutu, his domestic associates and his external sponsors drew from this system. It will also discuss the legal mechanisms a post‐Mobutu government might use to recapture stolen assets or set aside debts arising from loans whose proceeds were stolen.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Journal
            crea20
            CREA
            Review of African Political Economy
            Review of African Political Economy
            0305-6244
            1740-1720
            July 1993
            : 20
            : 57
            : 72-85
            Article
            8704005 Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 20, No. 57, July 1993, pp. 72-85
            10.1080/03056249308704005
            096b17c7-fc6e-40e7-aab2-e645345d8e2f

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History
            Page count
            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 30, Pages: 14
            Categories
            Original Articles

            Sociology,Economic development,Political science,Labor & Demographic economics,Political economics,Africa

            Bibliographic Note

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            4. Askin. . 1993. . ‘Accounting for Mobutu's Sins’. . Emerging Markets . , 14 May;

            5. Askin and Kramer Reed. . 1990. . ‘Favored Few Tap Zaïre's Wealth’. . Africa News . , 29 January;

            6. Askin. . 1993. . Diamond Registry Bulletin . , March;

            7. Blumenthal E. . 7 April. 1982 . “‘Zaïre: Rapport sur sa credibilite financiere Internationale’. ”. 7 April. ,

            8. Collins Carole. . 1992. . ‘Fatally Flawed Mediation: Cordier and the Congo Crisis of 1960’. . Africa Today . , : 18

            9. Dayal Rajeshwar. . 1976. . Mission for Hammarskjold . , Princeton : : Princeton University Press. .

            10. Henk Daniel W. . 1988. . ‘Kazi Ya Shaba: Choice, Continuity and Social Change in an Industrial Community of Southern Zaïre’ . , University of Florida. .

            11. International Monetary Fund. . 9 November. 1992 . “‘Zaire — Overdue Financial Obligations to the Fund — Further Review Following Declaration of Inelligibility’. ”. 9 November. ,

            12. Kwitny Jonathan. . 1984. . Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World . , New York : : Congdon & Weed. .

            13. Mahoney Richard D. . 1983. . JFK: Ordeal in Africa . , Oxford : : Oxford University Press. .

            14. Mensah C K. . 1992. . “‘Towards a Legal Framework for International Commercial Lending’. ”. Columbia University School of Law. .

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            16. (ed), 1980 , ‘Stay by your radios’ , documentation for a study of military government in Tropical Africa, Africa Studies Centre, African Social Research Documents , Vol. 12 , Cambridge

            17. Morel E D. . 1919. . Red Rubber: The Story of the Rubber Slave Trade which Flourished on the Congo for Twenty Years, 1890–1910 . , (new and revised edition). , New York : : B W Huebsch Inc. .

            18. Morris Roger. . 1977. . ‘Our Man Mobutu’. . New Republic . , 7 May;: 10––11. .

            19. (US Ambassador, Kinshasa), ‘Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Additional Information Zaïre’ , confidential cable, subsequently declassified, State Department No. 5367, 5 February 1982

            20. O'Brien Conor Cruise. . 1962. . To Katanga and Back: a UN Case History . , New York : : Simon and Schuster. .

            21. Peemans Jean‐Philippe. . 1975. . ‘The Social and Economic Development of Zaïre since independence: an historical outline’. . African Affairs . , April;

            22. Peemans. . 1975a. . “‘Capital accumulation in the Congo under colonialism: the role of the state’. ”. In Colonialism in Africa 1870–1960 . Edited by: Duignan Peter and Gann L H. . Vol. Vol. 4. ,

            23. Peemans. . The Economics of Colonialism . , London : : Cambridge University Press. .

            24. Slade Ruth. . 1962. . King Leopold's Congo . , London : : Oxford University Press. .

            25. Stockwell John. . 1978. . In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story . , New York : : W.W. Norton & Co. .

            26. Vance Cyrus. . 1983. . Hard Choices: critical years in America's foreign policy . , New York : : Simon and Schuster. .

            27. Weissman Stephen R. . 1974. . American Foreign Policy in the Congo 1960–64 . , Ithaca , N.Y. : : Cornell University Press. .

            28. World Bank. . 1992. . World Debt Tables, 1990–1 and 1992–3 . , Washington : : The World Bank. .

            29. 1988. . “‘A preliminary review of expenditure issues’. ”. In World Development Report 1992 .

            30. Young Crawford and Turner Thomas. . 1985. . The Rise and Decline of the Zaïrian State . , London : : University of Wisconsin Press. .

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