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      Pluto Journals
      vulnerability, resilience, risk, policy-making


            Many technological systems are vulnerable to threats such as military attack, sabotage, sudden economic change or social disaffection. There are various ways to reduce such vulnerabilities, such as direct planning, diversification and self-reliance, but current policy-making takes little cognisance of the issue.


            Author and article information

            Critical Studies in Innovation
            Pluto Journals
            June 1989
            : 7
            : 1
            : 49-60
            8629040 Prometheus, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989: pp. 49–60
            Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            Page count
            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 21, Pages: 12
            Original Articles

            Computer science,Arts,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Law,History,Economics


            1. Pam Scott, ‘Dealing with dissent: on the treatment of opposition to the Australian Animal Health Laboratory and the importation of live foot-and-mouth disease virus’, Search., 19, 1, January/February 1988, pp. 6–9.

            2. Charles Perrow, Normal Accidents., Basic Books, New York, 1984.

            3. Wilson Clark and Jake Page, Energy, Vulnerability, and War: Alternatives for America., Norton, New York, 1981; Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Brittle Power-Energy Strategy for National Security., Brick House, Boston, 1982; and James L. Plummer (ed.), Energy Vulnerability., Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982.

            4. Alan Borning, ‘Computer system reliability and nuclear war,’ Communications of the ACM., 30, 2, February 1987, pp. 112–131; Lance J. Hoffman and Lucy M. Moran, ‘Societal vulnerability to computer system failures,’ Computers and Security., 5, 1986, pp. 211–217; and Perry R. Morrison, ‘An absence of malice: computers and Armageddon’, Prometheus., 2, 2, 1984, pp. 190–200.

            5. Richard Charles Clark, Technological Terrorism., Devin-Adair, Old Greenwich, Connecticut, 1980.

            6. A. Barrie Pittock, Beyond Darkness: Nuclear Winter in Australia and New Zealand., Sun, Melbourne, 1987.

            7. W.S.G. Bateman, Australia's Overseas Trade: Strategic Considerations., Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 1984.

            8. Manuel Wik et al, ‘URSI factual statement on nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and associated effects’, International Union of Radio Science Information Bulletin., 232, March 1985, pp. 4–12.

            9. Paul Dibb, Review of Australia's Defence Capabilities: Report to the Minister of Defence., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1986.

            10. Paul Smoker and Morris Bradley (eds), Current Research on Peace and Violence., 11, 1–2, 1988, pp 1–79.

            11. Wren Green, Tony Cairns and Judith Wright, New Zealand After Nuclear War., New Zealand Planning Council, Wellington, 1987.

            12. Colin Kearton and Brian Martin, ‘The vulnerability of steel production to military threats’, Materials and Society., forthcoming.

            13. Donald F. Barnett and Robert W Crandell, Up from the Ashes: The Rise of the Steel Minimill in the United States., Brookings Institution, Washington DC, 1986; and R.D. Walker (ed.), Small Scale Steelmaking., Applied Science Publishers, London, 1983.

            14. Walter H. Goldberg (ed.), Ailing Steel The Transoceanic Quarrel., St. Martin's Press, New York, 1986, p. 464.

            15. John Woodward, Chairman, Commissioners of Inquiry for Environment and Planning, BHP Steel International Group Rod and Bar Products Division Proposed Steel Mill, Rooty Hill., Report to the Honourable David Hay, Minister for Local Government and Minister for Planning, Sydney, May 1988.

            16. M. Anjali Sastry, Joseph J. Romm and Kosta Tsipis, Nuclear Crash: The US Economy After Small Nuclear Attacks., Report #17, Program in Science and Technology for International Security, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1987.

            17. Lovins and Lovins, op. cit.

            18. Johan Galtung, Peter O'Brien and Roy Preiswerk (eds), Self-reliance: A Strategy for Development., Bogle-L'Ouverture, London, 1980.

            19. David Collingridge, Technology in the Policy Process: Controlling Nuclear Power., Frances Pinter, London, 1983.

            20. Bennett Ramberg, Destruction of Nuclear Energy Facilities in War: The Problem and its Implications., Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts, 1980.

            21. Irving L. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascos., Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1983.


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