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      Private Tutoring: how prevalent and effective is it?

      London Review of Education

      IOE Press

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          Abstract

          Many families employ private tutors to help children with their schoolwork, thus participating in a 'shadow education' system that supplements normal schooling. International surveys show that there is wide variation in the extent of tutoring in different countries. This paper considers reasons for this variation and evaluates evidence on the prevalence and effectiveness of private tutoring. The effectiveness of tutoring is mixed, with some well-designed programmes achieving large gains in attainment, whereas surveys show little impact. Some of these discrepancies arise from weak conceptualisation and methodological issues. It is argued that quality indicators should be added to analyses of survey data to provide more reliable estimates. Evidence from research on extra-curricular activities is used to explore the 'penumbra' between public and private sector involvement. Systematic monitoring of the shadow system is recommended. Policies should be developed, as it is likely that the prevalence of private tutoring will increase.

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          Most cited references 10

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          How effective are one-to-one tutoring programs in reading for elementary students at risk for reading failure? A meta-analysis of the intervention research.

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            Preventing Early Reading Failure with One-to-One Tutoring: A Review of Five Programs

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              After-school activities and the development of low-income urban children: a longitudinal study.

              After-school activities of 194 African American and White children from low-income households were studied from 3rd to 5th grade to determine relations with (a) child, family, and contextual variables and (b) children's adjustment over time. Girls were more likely to engage in academic activities and socializing, whereas boys were more likely to play coached sports. Children who attended after-school programs spent more time on academic and extracurricular activities, whereas children in informal care settings spent more time watching TV and hanging out. Evidence of transactional relations between after-school activities and child adjustment was found. Time spent in activities between 3rd and 5th grades was related to children's adjustment in 5th grade. In addition, child adjustment measured in 3rd grade was associated with time in different activities in 5th grade.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10430
                London Review of Education
                IOE Press
                1474-8460
                01 July 2004
                : 2
                : 2
                : 109-122
                Article
                1474-8460(20040701)2:2L.109;1- s3.phd /ioep/clre/2004/00000002/00000002/art00003
                10.1080/1474846042000229458
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                London Review of Education
                Volume 2, Issue 2

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                Cited by 6

                Most referenced authors 79