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      Revisiting Hitti's Thoughts on Palestine and Arab Identity

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      Arab Studies Quarterly
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      Palestine, Arab identity, Syrian identity
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            Abstract

            Philip K. Hitti was the first scholar to study Arab-American immigration to the United States. Highly influential during the twentieth century, his ideas have lost much of their appeal to current interpreters of the early diaspora of Arab-Americans called Syrians at the time. This article revisits Hitti's thought, focusing on the issues of Palestine and Arab identity. Using primary source material from Hitti's archived papers, plus multiple secondary sources, I argue that Hitti maintained consistency, both in his advocacy of the general Arab stance opposing a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and in his construction of Arab identity as different from Syrian identity. On Palestine, Hitti clashed with Albert Einstein, in public discourse and in an acerbic private exchange of correspondence. On Arab identity, Hitti held firm to a strict interpretation, distinguishing Syrians, conceptualized as Christian, from Arabs, conceptualized as Islamic.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.2307/j50005550
            arabstudquar
            Arab Studies Quarterly
            Pluto Journals
            0271-3519
            2043-6920
            1 April 2019
            : 41
            : 2 ( doiID: 10.13169/arabstudquar.41.issue-2 )
            : 150-171
            Article
            arabstudquar.41.2.0150
            10.13169/arabstudquar.41.2.0150
            931c582c-b573-4274-a595-ed9aecb762b8
            © 2019 The Center for Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies

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            History
            Custom metadata
            eng

            Social & Behavioral Sciences
            Palestine,Arab identity,Syrian identity

            Notes

            1. Eric J. Hooglund, “Introduction,” in Crossing the Waters: Arabic-Speaking Immigrants to the United States before 1940, ed. Eric J. Hooglund (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987), 12.

            2. Adee to Hitti, May 22, 1916, “Early Correspondence: A ca. 1916–1940,” Philip K. Hitti Papers (hereinafter “Hitti Papers”), IHRC 894, box 7, folder 1, Immigration History Research Center Archives (hereinafter “IHRCA”), University of Minnesota (hereinafter “UMinn”).

            3. Philip K. Hitti, Educational Guide for Syrian Students in the United States (New York: The Syrian-American Press, 1921), 31.

            4. Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs (London: Macmillan, 1937). A recent check of Amazon.com indicated availability of the tenth revised edition. Ten editions of a history book signifies countless readers since initial publication.

            5. Rudolph Vecoli, “Foreword,” in Crossing, xiii–xiv.

            6. Hooglund, “Introduction,” in ibid., 3.

            7. Bayly Winder, “Philip Khuri Hitti (1886–1978): An Homage,” in ibid., 147–159.

            8. Philip K. Hitti, The Syrians in America, intro. Talcott Williams (New York: Doran, 1924). By way of definition, those denominated “Syrians” emigrated from a vast territory that was, or had been, the Ottoman Empire realm of Greater Syria, comprising lands known today as the separate states of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, as well as the Palestinian territories. Like Hitti, many of the earliest Syrian immigrants hailed from Mount Lebanon, a province within Greater Syria. To be Lebanese, therefore, was to be Syrian, for purposes of contemporary diasporic identity. By the early 1890s, according to Samir Khalaf, at least one male from virtually every village in Mount Lebanon had emigrated. Samir Khalaf, “The Background and Causes of Lebanese/Syrian Immigration to the United States before World War I,” in Crossing, 18. Hitti estimated that, between 1900 and 1914, approximately 100,000 men and women, or about one quarter of Mount Lebanon's population, had reportedly emigrated. Philip K. Hitti, Lebanon in History: From the Earliest Times to the Present, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 474. Akram Fouad Khater commented that, by the start of World War I, emigration had caused Mount Lebanon's population to decline by nearly one-third. Akram Fouad Khater, Inventing Home: Emigration, Gender, and the Middle Class in Lebanon, 1870–1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 48. Such estimates are rough, and reconciling them nigh impossible, yet they demonstrate, in toto, that the sheer quantity of Syrian departures from Mount Lebanon for distant shores in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was huge. For an overview of Lebanon's history during that period, see William Harris, Lebanon: A History, 600–2011 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 162–176.

            9. Hitti, Syrians in America, 94. Alixa Naff cited Hitti for the same point over 60 years later in her assimilationist history of early Syrian immigration. Alixa Naff, Becoming American: The Early Arab Immigrant Experience (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985), 56–57, 336n45.

            10. Hitti, Syrians in America, 24–25, 34–35. In a similar vein, Naff reported factionalism and divisiveness in multiple contexts within the Syrian diaspora. Naff, Becoming, 16–17, 222–226, 232–233, 295–296, 299, 307–311. Much more recently, however, Hani J. Bawardi averred that sectarianism did not pervade the early Arab-American immigrant community. Hani J. Bawardi, “'Someone Will Come Along and Write the Next Chapter'; The Importance of Alixa Naff for Arab American Studies,” Arab Studies Quarterly 37:1 (2015), 120. For a major study contending that sectarianism in Lebanon was, at bottom, created by the interplay between European colonial powers and the Ottoman Empire in the context of purported modernization during the mid-nineteenth century, see Ussama Makdisi, The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000); see also Khater, Inventing, 194n21. In his historiographical epilogue, Makdisi labeled Hitti a “nationalist historian,” meaning one who believed in the ineluctability of Lebanon's emergence as an independent sovereign state, separate from Syria. Makdisi, Culture, 173. For an argument that Syrian identity itself grew out of Western ideological penetration in the nineteenth century, see Arnon Groiss, “Communalism as a Factor in the Rise of the Syria Idea in the 1800s and the Early 1900s,” in The Origins of Syrian Nationhood: Histories, Pioneers and Identity, ed. Adel Beshara (London and New York: Routledge, 2011), 30–54. The development of Lebanese identity as separate and distinct from Syrian identity is beyond the scope of this article.

            11. Reed to Hitti, October 13, 1950, “HITTI'S BOOKS: The Syrians in America (1950–1951),” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 14, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn; Hitti to Reed, October 20, 1950, “HITTI'S BOOKS: The Syrians in America (1950–1951),” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 14, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn. Apparently, Doubleday had acquired the publishing rights to Syrians in America by this time.

            12. Mary Ann Haick DiNapoli, “The Syrian-Lebanese Community of South Ferry from Its Origin to 1977,” in A Community of Many Worlds: Arab Americans in New York City, ed. Kathleen Benson and Philip M. Kayal (New York: The Museum of the City of New York and Syracuse University Press, 2002), 12, 18, 19, 22, 243n9, 243n15, 245n60, 245n62, 245n75, 246nn97–98; Michael W. Suleiman, “Impressions of New York City by Early Arab Immigrants,” in ibid., 41–42, 249n48-49; Jonathan Friedlander, “Rare Sights: Images of Early Arab Immigration to New York City,” in ibid., 46. DiNapoli and Friedlander cited works that Hitti wrote in English; Suleiman cited works that Hitti wrote in Arabic.

            13. Khater, Inventing, 49; Akram Fouad Khater, “Becoming ‘Syrian’ in America: A Global Geography of Ethnicity and Nation,” Diaspora 14:2/3 (2005), 303. Narratives emphasizing victimhood often reflected first-person recollections of immigrants’ lived experiences, oral histories passed down generationally, or reconstructions based on immigrants’ correspondence. See, e.g., Abraham Mitrie Rihbany, A Far Journey (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914); Layyah A. Barakat, “A Message from Syria,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 72 (1917), 153–154; Stanley Rashid, “Cultural Traditions of Early Arab Immigrants to New York,” in Community, 74; Raff Ellis, Kisses From a Distance: An Immigrant Family Experience (Seattle: Cune Press, 2007).

            14. Hitti, Syrians in America, 48–52; see also Hitti, Lebanon, 473. Moreover, Philip M. Kayal has written about the Syrian Christians of Hitti's time as follows: “The truth is that they were being persecuted—not by Arabs but by the Ottomans, as were their Muslim Arab neighbors.” Philip M. Kayal, “So, Who Are We? Who Am I?” in Community, 94.

            15. Sarah M. A. Gualtieri, Between Arab and White: Race and Ethnicity in the Early Syrian American Diaspora (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), 82–83.

            16. Hani J. Bawardi, The Making of Arab Americans: From Syrian Nationalism to U.S. Citizenship (Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2014), 311n53.

            17. Gregory J. Shibley, “Negotiating Urban Environment and Economy in New York's Little Syria, 1880–1946,” Journal of Urban History 44:6 (2018), 1084, 1086, 1089nn1–2, 1091n8, 1093n48, 1094n67, 1095n75, 1097n104.

            18. Linda K. Jacobs, Strangers in the West: The Syrian Colony of New York City, 1880–1900 (New York: Kalimah Press, 2015), 108.

            19. Elizabeth Boosahda, Arab-American Faces and Voices: The Origins of an Immigrant Community (Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2003), 141, 231n21. Boosahda exhibited extreme deference, perhaps even flattery, in correspondence to the elderly Hitti in 1976. Boosahda to Hitti, February 1, 1976, “Correspondence: A 1938–76,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 4, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn; Boosahda to Hitti, February 12, 1976, “Correspondence: A 1938–76,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 4, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn.

            20. Charlotte Karem Albrecht, “Narrating Arab American History: The Peddling Thesis,” Arab Studies Quarterly 37:1 (2015), 100–117.

            21. John Tofik Karam, “Philip Hitti, Brazil, and the Diasporic Histories of Area Studies,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 46 (2014), 451–471; see also Yehonathan Brodski, “The Sheikh of Princeton: Philip Hitti and the Tides of History,” PhD diss. (Austin: The University of Texas at Austin, 2015).

            22. “OPPOSE ZIONIST PLAN.; Syrians Adopt Resolutions of Protest at Brooklyn Meeting.,” New York Times, November 9, 1918, 4; see also Bawardi, Making, 318n43.

            23. Michael W. Suleiman, “Introduction: The Arab Immigrant Experience,” in Arabs in America: Building a New Future, ed. Michael W. Suleiman (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999), 5–6. In the early 1920s, Arabic-speaking immigrants continued mounting their collective opposition to Zionism via the Palestine National League, founded by a New Yorker, Fuad Shatara, MD. This organization grew into the Arab National League in the mid-1930s. Bawardi, Making, 32, 187–189. Bawardi proved beyond doubt that Syrian immigrants collaborated, in the main, on anti-Zionist campaigns for decades.

            24. Philip Hitti, “The Disposition of Syria: A Single Protectorate Preferred to a Division among Many Nations,” New York Times, February 2, 1919, 32. Another important immigrant writer who joined Hitti (and others) in this effort was H. I. Katibah. H. I. Katibah, “Syria for the Syrians Under the Guardianship of the United States,” The Syrian National Bulletin 1:9 (1919); H. I. Katibah, ed., The Case against Zionism (New York: Palestine National League, 1921); see also Bawardi, Making, 116, 320n25. For an earlier supplication to the United States from a Syrian immigrant, see Abraham Mitrie Rihbany, American Save the Near East (Boston: Beacon Press, 1918).

            25. Andrew Patrick, America's Forgotten Middle East Initiative: The King-Crane Commission of 1919 (London: I.B. Tauris, 2015), 46–47, 82. For an earlier monograph on the King–Crane Commission, see Harry N. Howard, The King-Crane Commission: An American Inquiry in the Middle East (Beirut: Khayats, 1963). For more on the King–Crane Commission, see Janice J. Terry, William Yale: Witness to Partition in the Middle East, WWI-WWII (Cyprus: Rimal, 2015). For a detailed examination of the League of Nations’ Mandatory system, see Susan Pedersen, The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

            26. Lawrence Davidson, “Debating Palestine: Arab-American Challenges to Zionism 1917–1932,” in Arabs in America, 228–233; see also, Lawrence Davidson, America's Palestine: Popular and Official Perceptions from Balfour to Israeli Statehood (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001).

            27. Frankfurter to Wilson, May 8, 1919, Albert H. Lybyer Papers, 1876–1949, record series 15/13/22, box 16; King-Crane-Commission (May–August, 1919), folder 3; Oberlin College Archives; http://dcollections.oberlin.edu/cdm/printview/collection/kingcrane/id/2424/type/compound… (Accessed July 10, 2016); Wilson to Frankfurter, May 13, 1919, ibid., http://dcollections.oberlin.edu/cdm/printview/collection/kingcrane/id/1865/type/singleitem (Accessed July 10, 2016); Frankfurter to Wilson, May 14, 1919; ibid., http://dcollections.oberlin.edu/cdm/printview/collection/kingcrane/id/1867/type/singleitem (Accessed July 10, 2016); Wilson to Frankfurter, May 16, 1919, ibid., http://dcollections.oberlin.edu/cdm/printview/collection/kingcrane/id/1868/type/singleitem. (Accessed July 10, 2016); see also Patrick, America's Forgotten, 48–49.

            28. Melvin I. Urofsky, Louis D. Brandeis: A Life (New York: Pantheon Books, 2009), 411, 428–429, 515–544; Paul Charles Merkley, The Politics of Christian Zionism, 1891–1948 (London: Frank Cass, 1998), 75–83, 87–89. Merkley observed that other key figures, including Stephen Wise and Jacob de Haas, also linked Wilson to Zionists. Ibid., 87.

            29. Charles A. Selden, “Our Cuban Record Appeals to Turks,” New York Times, August 31, 1919, 3.

            30. King to Lybyer, October 1, 1919, Albert H. Lybyer Papers, 1876–1949, record series 15/13/22, box 17; King-Crane-Commission (May–August, 1919), folder 3; Oberlin College Archives; http://dcollections.oberlin.edu/cdm/printview/collection/kingcrane/id/1912/type/singleitem (Accessed July 10, 2016).

            31. Wilson to Crane, July 6, 1922, Henry Churchill King Papers, 1873–1934; RG 2/6, box 128, folder 7; Oberlin College Archives; http://dcollections.oberlin.edu/cdm/printview/collection/kingcrane/id/1359/type/singleitem (Accessed July 10, 2016).

            32. Patrick, America's Forgotten, 178–180; “Report of American Section of Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey: An Official United States Government Report,” Editor & Publisher 55:27 (1922), IV–XVIII, XX, XXII, XXIV, XXVI.

            33. “First Publication of King-Crane Report on the Near East: A Suppressed Official Document of the United States Government,” Editor & Publisher 55:27 (1922), I.

            34. Patrick, America's Forgotten, 2.

            35. “Report of American Section of Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey: An Official United States Government Report,” Editor & Publisher 55:27 (1922), V.

            36. Rihbany to Hitti, January 2, 1922, “Early Correspondence: R—ca. 1920–1940,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 8, folder 9, IHRCA, UMinn.

            37. Collins to Hitti, June 24, 1926, “Miscellaneous II,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 33a, folder 32, IHRCA, UMinn.

            38. Collins to Hitti, June 26, 1928, “Miscellaneous II,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 33a, folder 32, IHRCA, UMinn; Collins to Hitti, January 11, 1929, “Miscellaneous II,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 33a, folder 32, IHRCA, UMinn; Farhat J. Ziadeh, “Philip Khuri Hitti [June 24, 1886–December 24, 1978],” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 13:1 (1979), 1.

            39. Alling to Hitti, April 13, 1931, “Correspondence: A 1938–76,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 4, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn. Correspondence from another State Department official, Philp Jessup, shows that Hitti worked with an Army Specialized Training Program at Princeton during World War II. Jessup to Hitti, July 13, 1943, “Correspondence: J,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 5, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn.

            40. Hitti to Alling, October 25, 1938, “Early Correspondence: B—ca. 1920–1940,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 7, folder 3, IHRCA, UMinn.

            41. Mogannam to Hitti, January 10, 1938, “Correspondence: A 1938–76,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 4, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn.

            42. Hitti to Dulles, February 27, 1956, “Correspondence: D,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 4, folder 8, IHRCA, UMinn.

            43. Hitti to Rogers, December 26, 1969, “Personal: Correspondence,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 26, folder 1, IHRCA, UMinn.

            44. Hitti, Syrians in America, 19–21, 33.

            45. Philip K. Hitti, “Syria's Place in the History of the World,” Syrian World, July 1926, 6–9; Philip K. Hitti, “Are the Lebanese Arabs?” ibid., February 1931, 5–16; “Speech of Welcome,” June 28, 1928, “Miscellaneous Programs / Reports / Speeches / Statements,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 17, folder 3, IHRCA, UMinn. In 1988, Kemal Salibi deflated Lebanese claims of Phoenicianist heritage. Kemal Salibi, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 178. Of course, Hitti had passed away 10 years earlier, and so could proffer no rebuttal. For more on the Phoenicianist leitmotif, see Asher Kaufman, Reviving Phoenicia: The Search for Identity in Lebanon (London: I.B. Tauris, 2004), 78–79; Gualtieri, Between, 21–24; Harris, Lebanon, 175–176; Gregory J. Shibley, “The Business Saga of New York's Syrian World, 1926–1935,” New York History 96:2 (2015), 199–200.

            46. Hitti, Syrians in America, 35–43.

            47. Ibid., 104–109.

            48. Ibid., 43, 125–134. The final appendix listed information about Syrian publications in the United States (specifically New York). Ibid., 135.

            49. Dalia Abdelhady, The Lebanese Diaspora: The Arab Immigrant Experience in Montreal, New York, and Paris (New York: New York University Press, 2011), 206n5.

            50. Philip M. Kayal and Joseph M. Kayal, The Syrian-Lebanese in America: A Study in Religion and Assimilation, fore. Michael Novak (Boston: Twayne, 1975), 230; Philip M. Kayal, “Arab Christians in the United States,” in Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities, ed. Sameer Y. Abraham and Nabeel Abraham (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1983), 48; see also Kayal, “Who Are We?” 94.

            51. Kaufman, Reviving, 77–78; Kayal, “Who Are We?” 94.

            52. Hitti Scholarship, 1940–1942, President's Program Records, box 6, Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library; Hitti, Philip K., Fellowship Oriental Languages and Literatures, 1941–1950, Historical Subject Files Collection, box 165, folder 10, Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library; “East Meets West at Princeton,” undated, “Miscellaneous Programs / Reports / Speeches / Statements,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 17, folder 3, IHRCA, UMinn.

            53. Winder, “Hitti,” 150, 158n3.

            54. See, e.g., Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 127; Nissim Rejwan, Arabs in the Mirror: Images and Self-Images from Pre-Islamic to Modern Times (Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2008), xi. For a recent volume that eschews Orientalism's constraints, see Nadine Naber, Arab America: Gender, Cultural Politics, and Activism (New York: New York University Press, 2012).

            55. Hitti to Whipple, August 30, 1945, “Correspondence: W,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 6, folder 6, IHRCA, UMinn; Bawardi, Making, 248–249, 261–265, 267–268.

            56. Philip K. Hitti, “The Possibility of Union among the Arab States,” The American Historical Review 48:4 (1943): 722–732.

            57. US House, “The Jewish National Home in Palestine,” Hearings before the Committee On Foreign Affairs, 78th Congr., 2nd sess., Statement of Dr. Philip K. Hitti, Professor, Princeton University, February 15, 1944 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1944), 241.

            58. Hitti, Syrians in America, 94.

            59. Hitti to Bloom, February 24, 1944, “Zionism—Correspondence (1944),” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 12, folder 7, IHRCA, UMinn.

            60. “Jewish National Home in Palestine,” 242, 244.

            61. Ibid., 242.

            62. Ibid., 241, 252, 253.

            63. Ibid., 246.

            64. “The Arab Claim to Palestine,” Broadcast on the Free Speech Forum of the Newspaper Guild of New York, Station WMCA, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 33, folder 26, IHRCA, UMinn.

            65. H. I. Katibah, The New Spirit in Arab Lands (New York: H.I. Katibah, 1940), 87–115. Katibah is another understudied figure. To date, the most illuminating analysis of this Syrian immigrant's political activism is found throughout Bawardi, Making.

            66. “Personal: Datebooks/Checkbooks,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 28, second of two folders marked as folder 1, IHRCA, UMinn.

            67. See Bawardi, Making, 248.

            68. Hearing before the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Washington, DC, State Department Building, Statement of Doctor Philip Hitti, January 11, 1946, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 26, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn.

            69. Merkley, Christian Zionism, 190–191.

            70. Kaufman, Reviving, 103n100, 132, 140n88.

            71. Winder, “Hitti,” 153.

            72. Hearing before the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Washington, DC, State Department Building, Statement of Doctor Albert Einstein, January 11, 1946, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 26, folder 5, IHRCA, UMinn.

            73. Katibah to Hitti, February 23, 1934, “Early Correspondence: K—ca. 1920–1940,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 8, folder 3, IHRCA, UMinn. Katibah's letter is typed on stationery of The Syrian World and misspells Einstein as “Einstin.”

            74. For more on the nature and significance of Hitti's and Einstein's contributions to the debate over Palestine, see Winder, “Hitti,” 152; Davidson, America's Palestine, 161, 165; Bawardi, Making, 35, 263, 268, 342n70; Karam, “Philip Hitti,” 457.

            75. “Speech of Dr. Philip K. Hitti at the banquet in honor of the delegations from Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, [&] Lebanon to the United Nations Conference on International Organization by the Arabic-speaking communities of San Francisco and Los Angeles at the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, May 13, 1945,” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 17, folder 3, IHRCA, UMinn.

            76. Hitti to Einstein, March 3, 1946, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 9, folder 19, IHRCA, UMinn.

            77. Einstein to Hitti, March 4, 1946, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 9, folder 19, IHRCA, UMinn.

            78. Hitti to Einstein, March 7, 1946, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 9, folder 19, IHRCA, UMinn. By “recompensation,” Hitti may have intended a combination of “recompense” and “compensation.” When examined in the summer of 2017, the three letters between Hitti and Einstein cited in notes 76–78, supra, were stapled together in reverse chronological order.

            79. “From Lebanon to Princeton Vignettes (in America),” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 21, folder 2, IHRCA, UMinn. The typewritten document contains a handwritten emendation substituting “being that whereas” for “is” between “difference” and “he.”

            80. “Palestinian Arabs Descended From Abraham, Says Dr. Hitti,” Princeton Herald, April 21, 1944, 1. The Princeton Herald was a newspaper in which Hitti debated the Palestine issue with Einstein (and Einstein's co-author). Because that exchange occurred in 1944, Hitti's unpublished manuscript in 1972 appears to have conflated testimony before the House Committee in 1944 with testimony before the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry in 1946. This conclusion is buttressed by the fact that his manuscript misidentifies the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry as the Anglo-American “Committee” of Inquiry. “From Lebanon to Princeton Vignettes (in America),” Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 21, folder 2, IHRCA, UMinn.

            81. Ibid.

            82. Ibid.

            83. Winder, “Hitti,” 152.

            84. Supplee to Hitti, May 28, 1964, Hitti Papers, IHRC 894, box 25, folder 10, IHRCA, UMinn.

            85. Winder, “Hitti,” 152. That Hitti did consulting work for business entities was no secret. See, e.g., Ziadeh, “Philip Khuri Hitti,” 2.

            86. Hitti to Mary Hitti, June 28, [1947?], Hitti Papers, IHRCA, box 1, folder 6, IHRCA, UMinn. This handwritten letter was found in a file folder, entitled, “Dr. Hitti's Correspondence with Mrs. Hitti (1947–1958).” The date, “June 28,” but not the year, appears in the upper right-hand corner of page 1.

            87. Winder, “Hitti,” 152.

            88. John Richard Starkey, “A Talk with Philip Hitti,” Saudi Aramco World 22:4 (July–August 1971), 28.

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