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      Islamophobia and the Time and Space of the Muslim Other

      Islamophobia Studies Journal
      Pluto Journals


            Author and article information

            Islamophobia Studies Journal
            Pluto Journals
            Spring 2012
            : 1
            : 1
            : 107-131
            Macalester College
            © Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project, Center for Race and Gender, University of California, Berkeley

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            Social & Behavioral Sciences


            1. This essay comes from a number of sections in , The Clash of Modernities: The Islamist Challenge and the Making and Unmaking of the “New” Jew, Turk, and Arab , Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Press (Forthcoming June 2009).

            2. (2000), Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran , United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, p. 8.

            3. (1979), Orientalism , New York: Vintage Books, p.177.

            4. see (2002: 123–52), Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity , Berkeley, California: The University of California Press.

            5. (1996: 31, 35), Manliness and Civilization: The Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917 , Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

            6. This analysis is borrowed from Joseph Massad's (2001: 77–78) adaptation in his study of Jordanian nationalism from Johannes Fabian's analysis of anthropology (2002); (2001), Colonial Effects: The Making of National Identity in Jordan , New York, New York: Columbia University Press; (2002), Time and the Other , New York, New York: Columbia University Press.

            7. (2001: 78).

            8. quoted in (2000:142), Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples At Home and Abroad, 1876–1917 , New York: Hill & Wang.

            9. quoted in (2000:116).

            10. (1995:60), “Ethnographic Showcases, 1870–1930,” in and (eds.), The Decolonization of Imagination: Culture, Knowledge, and Power , London and New Jersey: Zed Books.

            11. (1995:72).

            12. emphasis added, (2006:6), The Old Way: A Story of the First People , New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.

            13. (1996:31).

            14. (1989), Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance , Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press; et. al., (2003), Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Cold War , Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

            15. (1996: 31).

            16. (2002:111–12).

            17. Herbert Spencer cited in Jacobson (2000:142).

            18. (1996:29).

            19. Hegel cited in Mirsepassi (2000:31).

            20. (1991:81), Divided Passions: Jewish Intellectuals and the Experience of Modernity , Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

            21. Hegel cited in Mindes-Flohr (1991: 81).

            22. (2000:113).

            23. (2000:119).

            24. (2000:142)

            25. (2003:27).

            26. (2000: 50).

            27. (2008:9), Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference , Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

            28. (2002).

            29. (1995).

            30. (1995:93).

            31. and (1995:93–94)

            32. (1989).

            33. Bernard Lewis's answer to the question “Why do they hate us?” is posited in terms of the “Islamic mind,” located deep in doctrinal ideas, and represents a “return” to “the classical Islamic view” in which “the duty of God's soldiers is to dispatch God's enemies as quickly as possible to the place where God will chastise them—that is to say, the afterlife” (Lewis cited in Ali Mirsepassi, 2000). As Ali Mirsepassi argues (2000: 44), “the venturing of the ‘clash of civilization’ thesis depends upon the assertion that the hatred felt by Muslims has relatively little to do with any violation on the part of the West, and a great deal more to do with an ancient and almost supernatural form of enmity.” Edward Said's (2000) now classic response to Lewis and Huntington is also recommended.

            34. , New York Times , October 30, 2003 “It's No Vietnam.”

            35. , The New York Times , November 8, 2006, “Tolerable or Awful: The Roads Left in Iraq.”

            36. , The New York Times November 29, 2006 “Ten Months or Ten Years.”

            37. ibid

            38. ibid

            39. (, The New York Times , November 8, 2006, “Tolerable or Awful: The Roads Left in Iraq.”

            40. and , “The Roots of Terror,” in (2003), Islam and the West: Critical Perspectives on Modernity , Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: United Kingdom, 49–74. The schizophrenic mode of analysis of Langmann and Morris's essay brings up many Orientalist assumptions ripe for a world-system's critique. Langman and Morris are struggling to devise a radical revision for the roots of terrorism and the rise of Islamic movements, including by mentioning the need for a “larger social-historical context” and the rise and fall of global hegemonies. But in the end, the entire edifice of their argument is directly taking from Bernard Lewis's book, Islam and the West, including this quote with which they are in full agreement: “The highly advanced Islamic pursuits of science, medicine, and philosophy ceased to develop [after the collapse of the Almohad Empire]. ‘Independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to a veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge’” (p.61). They continue down this path by arguing that “Asian ‘tigers’ have prospered, as has Israel – while Islamic countries have remained poor, backward, and stagnant,” leaving us with the intentional impression that it has something to do with the cultural ethic of Islamic culture. The “left” here meets Bernard Lewis in its crudest form. It reminds us very much of the argument levelled against African Americans: “Jews, Koreans, and Chinese made it, so what's wrong with you? Is it the dysfunctional, matriarchical family system now run by single parent families?”

            41. Mirsepassi (2000: 40).

            42. Georg Simmel quoted in , On the Border , Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press (2005:xvi).

            43. (1987: 35), Europe and the Mystique of Islam , Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

            44. (1985: 13), Europe and Islam: Cultures and Modernity , Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

            45. (1987: 26).

            46. (1980: 10), Europe and the Middle East , Berkeley: University of California Press.

            47. (1985: 12–13).

            48. (1987: 60–61).

            49. (1985: 19).

            50. (1979: 12–21).

            51. (1985: 51).

            52. (2006:33), European Universalism: The Rhetoric of Power , New York and London: The New Press.

            53. (2004: 154–55), “The Roots of Misconception: Euro-American Perceptions of Islam Before and After September 11,” in (ed.), Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Betrayal of Tradition , Bloomington, Indiana: World Wisdom inc., pp.143–187.

            54. see , “The Roots of Muslim Rage,” The Atlantic Monthly 266 (September 1990, p.49).

            55. (1985: 24).

            56. Volney cited in Djait (1985: 25), emphasis added.

            57. (1980: 11).

            58. (1980: 13, 57).

            59. (1991: 26–27).

            60. (1991: 29).

            61. (1980: 61); (2007: 12–13), Desiring Arabs , Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

            62. cited in (2004: 171), emphasis added by Kalin.

            63. cited in (2004: 11–12).

            64. cited in (1979: 149).

            65. (1985: 51).

            66. (1980: 55).

            67. (1980: 12–13).

            68. Max Weber cited in Hourani (1980: 70).


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