450
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares

      If you have found this article useful and you think it is important that researchers across the world have access, please consider donating, to ensure that this valuable collection remains Open Access.

      Islamophobia Studies Journal is published by Pluto Journals, an Open Access publisher. This means that everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles from our international collection of social science journalsFurthermore Pluto Journals authors don’t pay article processing charges (APCs).

      scite_
       
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Anomie Écrasant, Religiopolitical Fundamentalism and American Evangelicalism: The Advent of Rightest Americanism and Islamophobia

      Published
      research-article
      Bookmark

            Abstract

            This article explains how intensifying levels of Durkheim's “anomie”—that is, the weakening of social bonds, social alienation and normlessness—lead to the development of a fundamentalist offshoot of American Evangelicalism termed “Rightest Americanism” and its virulent Islamophobia. To begin, it does so by arguing the anomic condition is not uniform, and a variety of intensities are possible. Consequently, Teymoori, Bastian and Jetten describe “high anomie” as containing high levels of disregulation and disintegration. Adding to that, Chak (2019) argues that at its most intense manifestation “anomie écrasant,” it includes value incoherence and moral ambivalence across social spheres leading to high levels of social frustration. Collectively, that intense anomic condition leads to a uniquely “conflicted” cultural milieu that cultivates religiopolitical fundamentalism. And, in the United States, this led to a vitriolic strain within Evangelicalism described as “Rightest Americanism,” which weaves together the return of Jesus Christ, the destruction of Al-Aqsa Mosque and Islamophobia into a violent, apocalyptic social imaginary. Not only that, it also advocates for World War III and the end of the world. Now, with the presidency of Donald Trump, there are legitimate concerns on how this dangerous ideology poses a danger to global peace.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Journal
            10.2307/j50018795
            islastudj
            Islamophobia Studies Journal
            Pluto Journals
            2325-8381
            2325-839X
            1 April 2018
            : 4
            : 2 ( doiID: 10.13169/islastudj.4.issue-2 )
            : 226-246
            Affiliations
            Qatar University, Qatar
            Article
            islastudj.4.2.0226
            10.13169/islastudj.4.2.0226
            02a71cd2-f118-45db-b6cf-0225bb806987
            © Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project, Center for Race and Gender, University of California, Berkeley

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History
            Custom metadata
            eng

            Social & Behavioral Sciences
            secularism,fundamentalism,Islam,apocalypse,Evangelicalism,Palestine and Islamophobia,modernity

            References

            1. Al Attas, Muhammad Naguib. 1978. Islam and Secularism. Kuala Lumpur: Art Printing Works.

            2. Aljazeera News. 2014. “Tariq Ramadan: ISIL not Islamic.” Talk to Aljazeera, October 12. http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/talktojazeera/2014/10/tariq-ramadan-isil-not-islamic.

            3. Armstrong, Karen. 2000. The Battle for God. New York: Random House.

            4. Barnes, Brooks. 2015. “An Unblinking Look at Sexual Assaults on Campus.” New York Times, January 26. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/movies/the-hunting-ground-a-film-about-rape-culture-at-colleges.html.

            5. Bebbington, David. 2005. The Dominance of Evangelicalism: The Age of Spurgeon and Moody. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Publishers.

            6. Blake, Aaron. 2017a. “Donald Trump's Full Inauguration Speech.” Washington Post, January 25. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/01/20/donald-trumps-full-inauguration-speech-transcript-.

            7. Blake, Aaron. 2017b. “4 Brutal Poll Numbers that Greet Hillary Clinton.” Washington Post, July 25. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/25/4-brutal-poll-numbers-that-greet-hillary-clinton-at-the-democratic-national-convention.

            8. Bruer, Wesley. 2016. “Violent Crime Rising in the US.” CNN Politics, July. http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/25/politics/violent-crime-report-us-cities-homicides-rapes/.

            9. Chak, Farhan Mujahid. 2014. Islam and Pakistan's Political Culture. London: Routledge Press.

            10. Chak, Farhan Mujahid. 2017. “The Post-enlightenment Moral Crisis and the Emergence of Secular Tyranny in the Middle East.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 34 (1): 49–76.

            11. Chak, Farhan Mujahid. 2019. “Society, Secularism and Anomie: The Emergence of Fundamentalism.” The Journal of Religion, Politics and Ideology. Routledge; Forthcoming Spring 2019.

            12. Cooper, Anderson. 2015. “Donald Trump Mocks Reporter with Disability.” Anderson Cooper 360, CNN Online, November 26. https://edition.cnn.com/videos/tv/2015/11/26/donald-trump-mocks-reporter-with-disability-berman-sot-ac.cnn/video/playlists/atv-politics-original/.

            13. Cox, Harvey. 2013. “Introduction to the New Edition.” In The Secular City. 5th ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

            14. Daniszewski, John. 2016. “Writing about the Alt-Right.” Associated Press: Definitive Source, November 28. https://blog.ap.org/behind-the-news/writing-about-the-alt-right.

            15. Durkheim, Émile. 1973. On Morality and Society. 1st ed. Translated by Robert N. Bellah. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

            16. Durkheim, Émile. 1974. Sociology and Philosophy. Translated by D. F. Pocock. New York: The Free Press.

            17. Durkheim, Emile. 2014. A Division of Labor in Society. New York: The Free Press.

            18. Elwell, Frank W. 2017. “Émile Durkheim on Anomie.” January 31. http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/users/f/felwell/www/Theorists/Essays/Durkheim1.htm.

            19. Fahrenthold, David. 2016. “Trump Recorded Having Lewd Conversation about Women.” Washington Post, October 8. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-recorded-having-extremely-lewd-conversation-about-women-in-2005/2016/10/07/3b9ce776-8cb4-11e6-bf8a-3d26847eeed4_story.html?utm_term=.9e3e0c164bf3.

            20. Fawcett, Edmund. 2015. Liberalism: The Life of an Idea. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

            21. Fingerhut, Hannah. 2016. “In Political Correctness Debate, Most Americans Think People Are Too Easily Offended.” Pew Research Online. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/20/in-political-correctness-debate.

            22. Gibben, Crawford. 2011. Evangelical Millennialism in the Trans-Atlantic World. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

            23. Green, Emma. 2017. “How Mike Pence's Marriage Became Fodder for the Culture Wars.” The Atlantic, March 30. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/03/pence-wife-billy-graham-rule/521298.

            24. Grusec, Joan E., and Paul D. Hastings. 2007. Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford Press.

            25. Guerra, Kristine. 2017. “Father and Son Accused of Rape Rely on Bible.” Washington Post, January 23. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/acts-of-faith/wp/2017/01/23/father-son-duo-accused-of-rape-wants-only-law-book-that-truly-matters.

            26. Hankins, Barry. 2008. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

            27. Harris, Harriet A. 2008. Fundamentalism and Evangelicals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            28. Hartman, Andrew. 2015. A War for the Soul of America: A History of the Culture Wars. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

            29. Haswell, Grace. 2002. Forcing God's Hand: Why Millions Pray for a Quick Rapture—and the Destruction of Planet Earth. Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications.

            30. Hedges, Chris. 2008. American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America. New York: Free Press.

            31. Holyoake, George Jacob. 2015. The Principles of Secularism. New York: Dossier Press.

            32. Jenkins, Jerry and Tim LaHaye. 1995. Left Behind: A Novel of the Earth's Last Days. Tyndale House Publishers.

            33. Kant, I. 2010. An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? New York: Penguin Books.

            34. Khan, Akhtar. 2016. “Donald Trump: The Divisive Force in American Politics.” Huffington Post, March 14. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/akhtar-khan/donald-trump-the-divisive.

            35. Kimble, Lindsey. 2017. “Can a Married Man Have Dinner with Another Woman? Mike Pence Doesn't Think So—and the Internet Has Lots of Feelings.” People, March 17. http://people.com/politics/mike-pence-doesnt-dine-alone-with-women-who-arent-his-wife/.

            36. Kuhn, Thomas. 1996. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

            37. Lazo, Luz. 2017. “Two Girls Barred from United Flight for Wearing Leggings.” Washington Post, March 26. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/dr-gridlock/wp/2017/03/26/two-girls-barred.

            38. Lee, Adam. 2017. “How Donald Trump Won over the Religious Right.” Patheos Online, January 15. http://www.patheos.com/blogs/daylightatheism/2016/01/how-donald-trump-won-over-the-religious-right/.

            39. Lind, Michael. 2016. “This Is What the Future of American Politics Looks Like.” Politico, May. http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/05/2016-election-realignment-partisan-political-party-policy-democrats-republicans-politics.

            40. Lindsey, Hal. 1970. The Late Great Planet Earth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Press.

            41. Marsden, George. 2003. Jonathan Edwards: A Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

            42. Mauro, Philip. 1927. The Gospel of the Kingdom: An Examination of Modern Dispensationalism. Swengel, PA: Bible Truth Depot.

            43. McCarthy, Tom. 2017. “Steven Bannon Islamophobia.” The Guardian, February 3. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/feb/03/steve-bannon-islamophobia-film-script-muslims-islam.

            44. Merrill, Simon. 1984. Jerry Falwell and the Jews. Middle Village, NY: Jonathan David Publishers.

            45. Moore, Michael. 2016. “5 Reasons Trump Will Win.” https://michaelmoore.com/trumpwillwin/.

            46. Morris, Joe. 2008. Revival of the Gnostic Heresy: Fundamentalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

            47. Nelson, Eliot. 2016. “Reince Priebus Voices Support for Altered Muslim Ban.” Huffington Post, November 20. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/reince-priebus-muslim-ban.

            48. Oxford, Nick. 2016. “Democrats Voter Intimidation.” CBS News, November. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/democrats-voter-intimidation-charges-against-gop-head-to-federal-court/.

            49. Packer, James Innell. 1977. Fundamentalism and the Word of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans.

            50. Pengelly, Martin. 2017. “Defense Secretary James Mattis and ISIS.” The Guardian, May 28. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/may/28/james-mattis-defense-secretary-us-isis-annihilation.

            51. Poloma, Margaret M. 1982. The Charismatic Movement: Is There a New Pentecost? New York: Twayne Publishers.

            52. Posner, Sarah. 2016. “The Religious Right's Trump Schism.” New York Times, October 19. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/19/opinion/campaign-stops/the-religious-rights-trump-schism.html?mtrref=www.google.com&gwh=ACE38C3EC218D3B7112659E4967CF34E&gwt=pay&assetType=opinion.

            53. Rabin, Roni. 2011. “1 in 5 Women in US Survey Report Sexual Assault.” New York Times, December 15. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/15/health/nearly-1-in-5-women-in-us-survey-report-sexual-assault.html

            54. Rivenbark, Celia. 2016. “Trump's Behavior Reminiscent of Schoolyard Bully.” Star News Online, July 30. http://www.starnewsonline.com/entertainment/20160730/trumps-behavior-reminiscent-of-school-yard-bully.

            55. Rosenblum, Michael. 2016. “Donald Trump Is Going to Be Elected.” Huffington Post, August 21. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-rosenblum/donald-trump-is-going-to_b_11637008.html.

            56. Rosenfeld, Steven. 2016. “We Can't Be Too Shocked by Trump's Rise.” Alternet. http://www.alternet.org/election-2016/we-cant-be-too-shocked-trumps-rise-overlooked-americans-seek-anti-establishment.

            57. Sandeen, Ernest. 1970. The Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism, 1800–1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

            58. Scalfani, Jennifer. 2016. “The Idiolect of Donald Trump.” Scientific American, March 25. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/the-idiolect-of-donald-trump/.

            59. Scott, Eugene. 2017. “Madeline Albright: I Stand Ready to Register as a Muslim.” CNN Politics, January 26. http://edition.cnn.com/2017/01/26/politics/madeleine-albright-muslim-executive-order/.

            60. Sharlet, Jeff. 2012. The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power. New York: Harper Collins, p. 337.

            61. Sizer, Stephen. 2006. Christian Zionism: Roadmap to Armageddon. London, UK: IVP Academic Press.

            62. Sproul, R. C. 2010. What Does It Mean to be Born Again? Sanford, FL: Reformation Trust Publishing.

            63. Stahl, Lesley. 1996. “Iraqi Sanctions: Were They Worth It?” 60 Minutes, Live TV Interview, May 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omnskeu-puE.

            64. Stout, Harry. 1991. The Divine Dramatist: George Whitefield and the Rise of Modern Evangelicalism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

            65. Taylor, Charles. 2007. A Secular Age. Boston: Harvard University Press, p. 25.

            66. Teymoori, Ali, Brock Bastian, and Jolanda Jetten. 2016. “Towards a Psychological Analysis of Anomie.” Political Psychology, 1–15. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310513198_Towards_a_Psychological_Analysis_of_Anomie.

            67. Thompson, Damian. 1999. The End of Time: Faith and Fear in the Shadow of the Millennium. Washington, DC: Vintage Press.

            68. Torrey, R. A., and A. C. Dixon, eds. 2003. The Fundamentals: A Testimony for Truth. Michigan: Baker Books Publishers, p. 3.

            69. Varandani, Suman. 2016. “Reince Priebus Talks about ‘Problematic Aspects of Islam.’” International Business Times, July 20. https://www.yahoo.com/news/incoming-white-house-chief-staff-120342816.html.

            70. Walsh, Joan. 2016. “Islamophobes, White Supremacists, and Gays for Trump.” The Nation, July 20. https://www.thenation.com/article/islamophobes-white-supremacists-and-gays-for-trump-the-alt-right-arrives-at-the-rnc/.

            71. Washington Post. 2016. “Trump's Strategy for Minority Americans.” October 11. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/trumps-strategy-for-minority-americans-dont-let-them-vote/2016/10/11/c3c509ac-8fe9-11e6-a6a3-d50061aa9fae_story.html.

            72. Weber, Timothy. 1983. Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillennialism: 1875–1982. Grand Rapids, MI: Academia Books.

            73. Weber, Timothy. 2004. On the Road to Armageddon: How Evangelicals Became Israel's Best Friend. Michigan: Baker Academic Press.

            74. Wertheim, Jon L., and Sam Sommers. 2016. “The Appeal of the Underdog.” New York Times, March 15. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/15/opinion/the-eternal-appeal-of-the-underdog.

            75. Williams, K. D. 2009. “Ostracism: A Temporal Need-Threat Model.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 41 (1): 257–341.

            76. Wong, David. 2006. Natural Moralities: A Defense of Pluralistic Relativism. New York: Oxford University Press.

            Comments

            Comment on this article