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      Islamophobia as a Phenotypical Racism: The Case of the Islamic Style of Clothing in Turkey

      Islamophobia Studies Journal
      Pluto Journals
      Islamophobia, phenotypical, racism, clothing, headscarf, beard, Turkey


            There are many more debates about Islamophobia’s racist dispositions in a Muslim-majority society, but the way these dispositions are exercised would be better studied if the fundamental causes were addressed first. Any form of racism can be defined as premeditated acts of degradation, humiliation, and hatred that occur in the context of everyday or regular actions. In previous centuries, racism was limited to phenotypic characteristics such as skin color, hair color, and eye color, but in today’s age of image, phenotypes have been transformed into body extensions such as clothing, resulting in a new type of “racial bias” directed at those who appear to be different from the rest of society. Turkey stands out above many other Muslim countries in terms of culture, traditions, and history, as one of the few superpowers to have ruled over a vast territory without being colonized at any point in its history. The transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic, the social fabric was forced to transform into a new pattern. By showing, representing, and projecting Islam as a specter of reactionary forces, it was alleged it may be eradicated from people’s daily lives. Islam was labelled a public enemy, along with anything that reminded people of it; women were singled out for their outer clothing standards. The self-proclaimed emancipators were able to save and free women from their oppressors by portraying them as meek and backward. Some people in Muslim-majority nations may be treated differently solely because of their phenotypical physical distinctions, which could be termed racism and eventually lead to Islamophobia.


            Author and article information

            Islamophobia Studies Journal
            Pluto Journals
            16 June 2022
            1 January 2022
            : 7
            : 1
            : 12-24
            2022 Ali Murat Yel

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            Page count
            Pages: 13

            Social & Behavioral Sciences
            Islamophobia,phenotypical,racism, clothing,headscarf,beard,Turkey


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