The concept of hegemony has been a mainstay in academic discourse since Greek writers coined the term during the conflicts between city states in ancient times. However, it was not until Antonio Gramsci produced his unfinished, seminal work, the Prison Notebooks, that the concept became a topic of intense discussion in the political sphere. Hegemony has been applied to the international global system relatively unchanged from Gramsci's social application of the concept. Whilst the underlying principles of Gramsci's conception can be applied in international relations without issue, some aspects are not so forthcoming. It is the intention of this paper to attempt to fill the void in international relations theory and provide a succinct and robust re-conception of Hegemony, how to attain it and maintain it. There will be no reinvention of the wheel; Hegemony will still mean dominance over all. Only now there will be a specific conception that can be applied to the current globalized liberal system. The Four Waves of Hegemony are presented here as an alternative to the current conception. Whilst there are inherent limitations mainly being the scope and size of the work presented, these are addressed and signposted for further research.
Acharya, U. (2013) “Globalization and Hegemony Shift: Are States Merely Agents of Corporate Capitalism?” Boston College Law Review, 54(3): 937–969.
Agnew, J. (2005) Hegemony: The New Shape of Global Power. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Al Hosni, J. (2015) “Globalization and the Linguistic Imperialism of the English Language,” Arab World English Journal, 6(1): 298–308.
Anderson, P. (2017) The H-Word. London: Verso.
Babic, M., Fichtner, J., & Heemskerk, E. (2017) “States versus Corporations: Rethinking the Power of Business in International Politics,” The International Spectator, 52(4): 20–43.
Brands, H. (2008) “Third World Politics in an Age of Global Turmoil: The Latin American Challenge to U.S. and Western Hegemony, 1965–1975,” Diplomatic History, 32(1): 105–138.
Brands, H. and Palkki, D. (2012) “‘Conspiring Bastards’: Saddam Hussein's Strategic View of the United States,” Diplomatic History, 36(3): 625–657.
Brogi, A. (2006) “‘Competing Missions’: France, Italy, and the Rise of American Hegemony in the Mediterranean,” Diplomatic History, 30(4): 741–770.
Brown, A. & Humphreys, M. (2006) “Organizational Identity and Place: A Discursive Exploration of Hegemony and Resistance,” Journal of Management Studies, 43(2): 231–257.
Buzan, B. (1991) People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Michigan: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Chomsky, N. (2004) Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance. 1st ed. London: Penguin.
Chomsky, N. (2013) Power and Terror: Conflict, Hegemony, and the Rule of Force. 3rd ed. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.
Clark, I. (2009) “Towards an English School Theory of Hegemony,” European Journal of International Relations, 15(2): 203–228.
Comte, E. (2018) The History of the European Migration Regime: Germany's Strategic Hegemony. 1st ed. Abingdon: Routledge.
Crawford, B. (2007) Power and German Foreign Policy: Embedded Hegemony in Europe. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
David, C. and Grondin, D. (2006) Hegemony or Empire? The Redefinition of US Power Under George W. Bush. 1st ed. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
Dirzauskaite, G. and Ilinca, N. (2017) Understanding “Hegemony” In International Relations Theories. Development and International Relations. Aalborg: Aalborg University. https://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/files/260247380/Understanding__Hegemony__in_International_Relations_Theories.pdf (accessed 1 March 2020).
Dorrien, G. (2005) Imperial Designs: Neoconservatism and the New Pax Americana. 2nd ed. Oxford: Routledge.
Dunne, M. (2000) “US Foreign Relations in the Twentieth Century: From World Power to Global Hegemony,” International Affairs, 76(1): 25–40.
Fontana, B. (1993) Hegemony and Power: On the Relation between Gramsci and Machiavelli. 1st ed. London: University of Minnesota Press.
Foot, R., MacFarlane, S., & Mastanduno, M. (2003) US Hegemony and International Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Galtung, J. (1969) “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research,” Journal of Peace Research, 6(3): 167–191.
Green, M. (2011) Rethinking Gramsci. 1st ed. London: Routledge.
Grimm, D. and Cooper, B. (2015) Sovereignty. 1st ed. New York: Columbia University Press.
Grunberg, I. (1990) “Exploring the ‘Myth’ of Hegemonic Stability,” International Organization, 44(4): 431–477.
Guha, R. (1997) Dominance Without Hegemony. 1st ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Guo, Y. & Beckett, G. (2007) “The Hegemony of English as a Global Language: Reclaiming Local Knowledge and Culture in China,” Convergence, 40(1): 117–131.
Herschinger, E. (2012) “'Hell Is the Other”: Conceptualising Hegemony and Identity through Discourse Theory,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 41(1): 65–90.
Hugill, P. (2010) “The American Challenge to British Hegemony, 1861–1947,” Geographical Review, 99(3): 403–425.
Ives, P. (2010) “Global English, Hegemony and Education: Lessons from Gramsci,” in P. Mayo (Ed.) Gramsci and Educational Thought, 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 78–99.
Jessop, B. (2003) “Critical Realism and Hegemony,” Journal of Critical Realism, 1(2): 183–194.
Joseph, J. (2000) “A Realist Theory of Hegemony,” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(2): 179–202.
Joseph, J. (2001) “Hegemony in the Fourth Dimension,” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 31(3): 261–277.
Joseph, J. (2003) Hegemony: A Realist Analysis. London: Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Kane, T. (2006) Theoretical Roots Of US Foreign Policy. 1st ed. London: Routledge.
Kertzer, D. (1979) “Gramsci's Concept of Hegemony: The Italian Church-Communist Struggle,” Dialectical Anthropology, 4(4): 321–328.
Kiely, R. (2005). Empire in the Age of Globalisation. 1st ed. London: Pluto Press.
Kim, T. and Kim, D. (2017). The Secrets of Hegemony. Singapore: Springer.
Kinzer, S. (2007) Overthrow: America's Century Of Regime Change From Hawaii To Iraq. 1st ed. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt.
Krishna, S. (2009) Globalization and Postcolonialism. 1st ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Laclau, E. and Mouffe, C. (2014) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards A Radical Democratic Politics. 2nd ed. London: Verso.
Lau, F. and Kuziemsky, C. (2016) Handbook of EHealth Evaluation. 1st ed. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria, pp.157–179.
Ledwith, M. (2009) “Antonio Gramsci and Feminism: The Elusive Nature of Power,” Educational Philosophy and Theory, 41(6): 684–697.
Ljungdahl, L. & Otte, K. (2004) “The English Language and Linguistic Imperialism: The Trojan Horse?” The International Journal of Learning, 10: 1–17.
Macedo, D., Dendrinos, B., & Gounari, P. (2016) The Hegemony of English. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Markakis, D. (2016) US Democracy Promotion in the Middle East. New York: Routledge.
Martin, G. (2013) General De Gaulle's Cold War: Challenging American Hegemony, 1963–1968. 1st ed. New York: Berghan Books.
Mayo, P. (2015) Hegemony and Education under Neoliberalism Insights from Gramsci. 1st ed. New York: Routledge.
McCauley, J. (2012) “Economic Development Strategies and Communal Violence in Africa,” Comparative Political Studies, 46(2): 182–211.
Mearsheimer, J. (2018) The Great Delusion: Liberal Dream and International Realities. 1st ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Morita, K. and Oliga, J. (1991) “Strategic Ideologies and State Hegemony, with Empirical Illustrations from Japan and the United Kingdom,” Systems Practice, 4(1): 21–36.
Noorani, Y. (2010) Culture and Hegemony in the Colonial Middle East. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Norrlof, C. (2010) America's Global Advantage. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nye, J. (2004) Soft Power and American Foreign Policy. Political Science Quarterly, 119(2): 255–270
O'Keefe, T. (2018) Bush II, Obama, and the Decline of U.S. Hegemony in the Western Hemisphere. 1st ed. New York: Routledge.
Onwuegbuzie, A. and Frels, R. (2016) 7 Steps to Comprehensive Literature Review. 1st ed. London: SAGE.
Pahre, R. (1999) Leading Questions: How Hegemony Affects The International Political Economy. 1st ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Pare, G. and Kitsiou, S. (2017) Chapter 9: Methods for Literature Reviews. In: F. Lau and C. Kuziemsky, ed., Handbook of eHealth Evaluation: An Evidence-based Approach. Victoria: University of Victoria, pp.157–179.
Parmar, I. (2018) The US-led liberal order: Imperialism by another name? International Affairs, 94(1): 151–172.
Pedersen, T. (2002) Cooperative hegemony: power, ideas and institutions in regional integration. Review of International Studies, 28(04): 677–696.
Podliska, B. (2010) Acting Alone. 1st ed. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Proedrou, F. (2012) Re-conceptualising the Energy and Security Complex in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Cyprus Review, 24(2): 15–28.
Reich, S. & Lebow, R. (2014) Good-Bye Hegemony: Power and Influence in the Global System. 1st ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rupert, M. (1995) Producing Hegemony: The Politics of Mass Production and American Global Power. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scarfi, J. and Tillman, A. (2016) Cooperation and Hegemony in US-Latin American Relations. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schecter, D. (2010) Beyond Hegemony. 1st ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Schmidt, B. (2018) Hegemony: A Conceptual and Theoretical Analysis. Consensus and Coercion in Contemporary Politics. [online] Germany: Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute. Available at: <https://doc-research.org/2018/08/hegemony-conceptual-theoretical-analysis/> [Accessed 8 December 2018].
Shannon, S. (1995) The hegemony of English: A case study of one bilingual classroom as a site of resistance. Linguistics and Education, 7(3): 175–200.
Smucker, J. (2017) Hegemony How-To: A Roadmap for Radicals. 1st ed. AK Press.
Snidal, D. (1985) The Limits of Hegemonic Stability Theory. International Organization, 39(4): 579–614.
Stoddart, M. (2007) Ideology, Hegemony, Discourse: A Critical Review of Theories of Knowledge and Power. Social Thought and Research, [online] 28: 191–225. Available at: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/23252126>.
Tozzo, B. (2018) American Hegemony after the Great Recession. 1st ed. London: Palgrave Macmillian.
Tulchin, J. (2016) Latin America in International Politics: Challenging US Hegemony. 1st ed. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Uskalis, E. (2001) Hegemony, Ideology and Dissent in Postcolonial Studies. Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies, 7(2): 29–42.
Wallace, W. (2002) American Hegemony: European Dilemmas. The Political Quarterly, 73(s1): 105–118.
Ware, R. and Kisriev, E. (2010) Dagestan: Russian Hegemony and Islamic Resistance in the North Caucasus. 1st ed. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Watson, S. (2011) “‘Framing’ the Copenhagen School: Integrating the Literature on Threat Construction,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 40(2): 279–301.
Yazid, M. (2015) “The Theory of Hegemonic Stability, Hegemonic Power and International Political Economy,” Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, 3(6): 67–79.