+1 Recommend
1 collections

      If you have found this article useful and you think it is important that researchers across the world have access, please consider donating, to ensure that this valuable collection remains Open Access.

      Prometheus is published by Pluto Journals, an Open Access publisher. This means that everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles from our international collection of social science journalsFurthermore Pluto Journals authors don’t pay article processing charges (APCs).

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Three decades of research on innovation and inequality: Causal scenarios, explanatory factors and suggestions

      Pluto Journals


            Prompted by rising income inequality (in short, inequality) in advanced economies, a rapidly growing number of studies across various fields and disciplines of social science have, since the 1990s, sought to find out how innovation (as the main engine of economic progress) affects the distribution of income in modern-day capitalist societies. Using the systematic literature review method, this paper provides the first critical review of 166 studies on innovation and inequality published in 114 journals in the last three decades (1990–2019). It is shown that, while the great majority of studies under review concur that innovation induces inequality, this finding is subject to the disciplinary origins of research (e.g., development studies, economics, geography, innovation studies, etc.) and the country under investigation. Furthermore, guided by an original causally holistic analytical framework, the analysis demonstrates that the relationship between innovation and inequality is significantly more causally complex than the most popular theoretical perspective (i.e., skill-biased technological change account) has let us believe; in particular, it is subject to five causal scenarios and a range of explanatory factors (i.e., skill premiums, technological unemployment, international trade, declining union membership, spatial aspects, changing employment conditions, policy, horizontal inequalities, sectoral composition and types of innovation). The paper ends by discussing findings, policy implications and knowledge gaps, one of which concerns the following under-researched question: how, and under what conditions do publicly funded innovation policies reduce (or increase) inequality?


            Author and article information

            Pluto Journals
            30 August 2022
            : 38
            : 2
            : 147-193
            Author notes

            ACCEPTING EDITOR: Hans-Jürgen Engelbrecht


            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            Page count
            Pages: 47
            Research papers

            Computer science,Arts,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Law,History,Economics


            1. (2002) ‘Technical change, inequality, and the labor market’, Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 1, pp.7–72.

            2. (2011) ‘Skills, tasks and technologies: implications for employment and earnings’ in (eds) Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.1043–1171.

            3. (2012) Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, Crown, New York.

            4. (2001) ‘Deunionization, technical change and inequality’, Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 55, pp.229–64.

            5. (2008) ‘Globalization and income inequality: implications for intellectual property rights’, Journal of Policy Modeling, 30, 5, pp.725–35.

            6. (2015) ‘Job polarization and task-biased technological change: evidence from Sweden, 1975–2005’, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 117, 3, pp.878–917.

            7. (2019) ‘Innovation and top income inequality’, Review of Economic Studies, 86, 1, pp.1–45.

            8. (2020) ‘1979 and all that: a 40-year reassessment of Margaret Thatcher’s legacy on her own terms’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 44, 2, pp.319–42.

            9. (2002) ‘Globalization and the great U-turn: income inequality trends in 16 OECD countries’, American Journal of Sociology, 107, 5, pp.1244–99.

            10. (1978) ‘Measures of inequality’, American Sociological Review, 43, 6, pp.865–80.

            11. (2010) ‘SBTC versus trade: testing skill-premia evidence across 25 OECD countries’, Applied Economics Letters, 17, 15, pp.1497–1501.

            12. (2013) ‘The top 1 percent in international and historical perspective’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27, 3, pp.3–20.

            13. (2009) ‘Skill upgrading and the real exchange rate’, World Economy, 32, 8, pp.1165–79.

            14. (2009) ‘Innovation and wage polarisation in Europe’, International Review of Applied Economics, 23, 3, pp.309–25.

            15. (2018) ‘Polarization and rising wage inequality: comparing the US and Germany’, Econometrics, 6, 2, pp.1–33.

            16. (2009) ‘The economics of innovation: from the classical legacies to the economics of complexity’, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 18, 7, pp.611–46.

            17. (2017) ‘Technological change, rent and income inequalities: a Schumpeterian approach’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 115, pp.85–98.

            18. (2015) Generative Mechanisms: Transforming the Social Order, Springer, Cham Switzerland.

            19. (2001) The Globalizing Learning Economy, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

            20. (2020) ‘Productivity and inequality in the UK: a political economy perspective’, Review of Evolutionary Political Economy, 1, pp.183–97.

            21. (2009) ‘Biofuels, poverty, and growth: a computable general equilibrium analysis of Mozambique’, Environment and Development Economics, 15, 1, pp.81–105.

            22. (2005) ‘The geography of innovation: regional innovation systems’ in (eds) Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.291–317.

            23. (2010) Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

            24. (2014) ‘Wage formation and gender wage gaps: is there a role for job-task evaluation schemes?’, International Journal of Manpower, 35, 3, pp.267–90.

            25. (2011) ‘Top incomes in the long run of history’, Journal of Economic Literature, 49, 1, pp.3–71.

            26. (2004) ‘Trade reforms and wage inequality in Colombia’, Journal of Development Economics 74, 2, pp.331–66.

            27. (2008) ‘Trends in US wage inequality: revising the revisionists’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 2, pp.300–23.

            28. (1998) ‘Computing inequality: have computers changed the labor market?’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113, 4, pp.1169–1213.

            29. (2003) ‘The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 4, pp.1279–1333.

            30. (2014) ‘A relational theory of earnings inequality’, American Behavioral Scientist, 58, 3, pp.379–99.

            31. (2000) ‘Shifts in relative US wages: the role of trade, technology, and factor endowments’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 82, 4, pp.580–95.

            32. (2015) ‘Individuals, interactions and institutions: how economic inequality affects organizations’, Human Relations, 68, 7, pp.1059–83.

            33. (2016) ‘Building tribal communities in the collaborative economy: an innovation framework’, Prometheus, 34, 2, pp.95–113.

            34. (2001) ‘The effects of deregulation, de-unionization, technology, and human capital on the work and work lives of truck drivers’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 54, 2A, pp.502–24.

            35. (2004) ‘Size, skill and sorting’, Labour, 18, 4, pp.515–61.

            36. (1997) ‘Exporters, skill upgrading, and the wage gap’, Journal of International Economics, 42, 1/2, pp.3–31.

            37. (2008) A Realist Theory of Science, Verso, London.

            38. (2021) ‘The noxious consequences of innovation: what do we know?’, Industry and Innovation, 28, 1, pp.19–41.

            39. (2004) ‘How workers fare when employers innovate’, Industrial Relations, 43, 1, pp.44–66.

            40. (2009) ‘Introduction: the global financial crisis’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 33, 4, pp.531–8.

            41. (2009) ‘Poorer workers: the determinants of wage formation in Europe’, International Review of Applied Economics, 23, 3, pp.327–43.

            42. (2014) ‘A critical review of the technology-inequality debate’, Suma De Negocios, 5, 12, pp.124–35.

            43. (2019) ‘Heterogeneous incentives for innovation adoption: the price effect on segmented markets’, Food Policy, 87, paper 101741.

            44. Ter (2007) ‘The diffusion of computers and the distribution of wages’, European Economic Review, 51, 3, pp.715–48.

            45. (2015) ‘Growth rates of modern science: a bibliometric analysis based on the number of publications and cited references’, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66, 11, pp.2215–22.

            46. (1987) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.

            47. (2015) ‘A world of contrasted but interdependent inequality regimes: China, United States and the European Union’, Review of Political Economy, 27, 4, pp.481–517.

            48. (2017) ‘Meta-analysis: a critical realist critique and alternative’, Human Relations, 70, 1, pp.11–39.

            49. (1974) Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, Monthly Review Press, New York.

            50. (2013) ‘Commentary: contesting inequality’, Environment and Planning A, 45, pp.1775–84.

            51. (2014) ‘On the relationship between innovation and wage inequality: new evidence from Canadian cities’, Economic Geography, 90, 4, pp.351–73.

            52. (1999) ‘Computerisation and wage dispersion: an analytical reinterpretation’, Economic Journal 109, 456, pp.390–415.

            53. (2021) Innovation in Real Places: Strategies for Prosperity in an Unforgiving World, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

            54. , Lo (2011) ‘Individual earnings, international outsourcing and technological change: evidence from Italy’, International Economic Journal, 25, 1, pp.29–46.

            55. (2012) ‘Cellular phones in Mozambique: who has them and who doesn’t?’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79, 2, pp.231–43.

            56. (2001) ‘Technical change, wages, and employment in semiconductor manufacturing’, ILR Review, 54, 2A, pp.450–65.

            57. (2001a) ‘Knowledge spillovers and wage inequality: an empirical analysis of Dutch manufacturing’, Labour, 15, 4, pp.641–62.

            58. (2016) ‘Gender wage inequality: the de-gendering of the occupational structure’, European Sociological Review, 32, 1, pp.162–74.

            59. (2012) Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy, Digital Frontier Press, available at https://openlibrary.org/publishers/Digital_Frontier_Press (accessed May 2022).

            60. (2002) ‘Skill-biased technological change and rising wage inequality: some problems and puzzles’, Journal of Labor Economics, 20, 4, pp.733–83.

            61. (2018) ‘Locating geographies of inequality: publication trends across OECD countries’, Regional Studies, 52, 9, pp.1225–36.

            62. (2005) ‘Measuring the digital divide in the United States: race, income, and personal computer ownership’, Professional Geographer, 57, 3, pp.395–410.

            63. (2018) Advanced Introduction to National Innovation Systems, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK.

            64. (2019) ‘The rise of programming and the stalled gender revolution’, Sociological Science, 6, pp.321–51.

            65. (1998) ‘Establishment level earnings, technology and the growth of inequality: evidence from Britain’, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 5, 2/4, pp.139–64.

            66. (2005) ‘Technological change and wage premium in a small open economy: the case of Korea’, Applied Economics, 37, 1, pp.119–31.

            67. (2007) ‘Power in firm networks: what it means for regional innovation systems’, Regional Studies, 41, 9, pp.1223–36.

            68. (2021) ‘Digitalization, routineness and employment: an exploration on Italian task-based data’, Research Policy, 50, 7, paper 104079.

            69. (2017) ‘Innovation and within-firm wage inequalities: empirical evidence from major European countries’, Industry and Innovation, 24, 5, pp.468–91.

            70. (2021) ‘The dark side of innovation’, Industry and Innovation, 28, 1, pp.102–12.

            71. (1990) ‘High technology, work, and inequality in southern labor markets’, Work and Occupations, 17, 1, pp.3–29.

            72. (2018) ‘If technology has arrived everywhere, why has income diverged?’, American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 10, 3, pp.137–78.

            73. (2008) ‘The changing demand for skills: evidence from the transition’, Economics of Transition, 16, 2, pp.199–221.

            74. (2020) ‘The third mission of the university: a systematic literature review on potentials and constraints’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 161, paper 120284.

            75. (2013) ‘Analysis of the graduate labour market in Finland: spatial agglomeration and skill–job match’, Regional Studies, 47, 10, pp.1634–52.

            76. (1988) ‘Organizing knowledge syntheses: a taxonomy of literature reviews’, Knowledge in Society, 1, 1, 104–26.

            77. (2003) ‘Science policy: two views from two decades’, Prometheus, 21, 4, pp.509–21.

            78. (2012) ‘Editor’s introduction: distributional consequences of emerging technologies’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79, 2, pp.199–203.

            79. (2002) ‘Evaluating the distributional consequences of science and technology policies and programs’, Research Evaluation, 11, 2, pp.101–7.

            80. (2009) ‘Innovation, poverty and inequality: cause, coincidence, or co-evolution?’ in (eds) Handbook of Innovation Systems and Developing Countries, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK, pp.57–82.

            81. (2010) ‘Government spending composition, technical change, and wage inequality’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 8, 6, pp.1325–58.

            82. (2020) ‘The evolution of wage gaps between STEM and non-STEM graduates in a technological following economy’, Applied Economics, 52, 23, pp.2427–42.

            83. (2020) ‘Heterodox economic journal rankings revisited’ in (eds) Contemporary Issues in Heterodox Economics, Routledge, Milton Park UK, pp.231–58.

            84. (2009) ‘Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the “new financial architecture”’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 33, 4, pp.563–80.

            85. (2002) Explaining Society: Critical Realism in the Social Sciences, Routledge, Milton Park UK.

            86. (2014) ‘Informality, inequality, and ICT in transition economies’, Eastern European Economics, 52, 5, pp.3–31.

            87. (2011) ‘The impact of agricultural technology adoption on income inequality in rural China: evidence from southern Yunnan Province’, China Economic Review, 22, 3, pp.344–56.

            88. (2007) ‘What has sociology to contribute to the study of inequality trends? A historical and comparative perspective’, American Behavioral Scientist, 50, 5, pp.603–18.

            89. Porto (2017) ‘A review of (almost) 20 years of regional innovation systems research’, European Planning Studies, 25, 3, pp.371–87.

            90. (2008) ‘Inequality in the creative city: is there still a place for “old-fashioned” institutions?’, Economic Development Quarterly, 22, 1, pp.46–62.

            91. (2019) Inequality and the 1%, Verso, London.

            92. (2009) ‘After deindustrialization: uneven growth and economic inequality in “postindustrial” Chicago’, Economic Geography, 85, 2, pp.183–207.

            93. (2007) ‘Retroduction as mixed-methods triangulation in economic research: reorienting economics into social science’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31, 1, pp.77–99.

            94. (2009) ‘Revisiting the German wage structure’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124, 2, pp.843–81.

            95. (2009) ‘Wage differentials and the spatial concentration of high-technology industries’, Papers in Regional Science, 88, 3, pp.623–41.

            96. (2018) ‘Unintended consequences on gender diversity of high-tech growth and labor market polarization’, Research Policy, 47, 1, pp.209–17.

            97. (2005) ‘Systems of innovation: perspectives and challenges’ in (eds) Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.181–208.

            98. (2019) ‘Towards a holistic innovation policy: can the Swedish national innovation council (NIC) be a role model?’, Research Policy, 48, 4, pp.869–79.

            99. (1980) ‘Marx and Schumpeter on capitalism’s creative destruction: a comparative restatement’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 95, 1, pp.45–68.

            100. (2009) ‘The evolution of skill-biased effects on American wages in the 1980s and 1990s’, Journal of Labor Research, 30, 2, pp.135–48.

            101. (2003) ‘Technology, trade, and wage inequality in Mexico before and after NAFTA’, Journal of Development Economics, 72, 2, pp.543–65.

            102. (1994) ‘Technology and international differences in growth rates’, Journal of Economic Literature, 32, 3, pp.1147–75.

            103. (2003) ‘Schumpeter and the revival of evolutionary economics: an appraisal of the literature’, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 13, 2, pp.125–59.

            104. (2011) ‘Christopher Freeman: social science entrepreneur’, Research Policy, 40, 7, pp.897–916.

            105. (2012) ‘Innovation: exploring the knowledge base’, Research Policy, 41, 7, pp.1132–53.

            106. (2010) ‘The evolution of inequality in productivity and wages: panel data evidence’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 19, 6, pp.1919–51.

            107. (1997) ‘The impact of income inequality on product diversity and economic growth’, Metroeconomica, 48, 3, pp.211–37.

            108. (2021) ‘Regional income disparities, monopoly and finance’, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 14, 1, pp.25–49.

            109. (2001) ‘Skill-biased technological change and wage inequality: evidence from a plant retooling’, American Journal of Sociology, 107, 2, pp.273–320.

            110. (2007) The Flight of The Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent, HarperCollins, New York.

            111. (2016) ‘The geography of inequality: difference and determinants of wage and income inequality across US metros’, Regional Studies, 50, 1, pp.79–92.

            112. (2015) ‘Questioning neoliberal capitalism and economic inequality in business schools’, Academy of Management Learning and Education, 14, 4, pp.556–75.

            113. (2012) ‘Reflections on social capital and economic performance’, International Review of Sociology, 22, 2, pp.259–71.

            114. (2017) ‘Innovation paradoxes: a review and typology of explanations’, Prometheus, 35, 4, pp.267–90.

            115. (2021) ‘Innovation, innovation systems and income inequality: a study of causal mechanisms’, PhD thesis, Birkbeck, University of London.

            116. (1995) ‘Did the green revolution concentrate incomes? A quantitative study of research reports’, World Development, 23, 2, pp.265–79.

            117. (1994) ‘Innovation and growth’ in (eds) Handbook of Industrial Innovation, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK, pp.78–93.

            118. (2001) ‘Learning economy and inequality’ in (eds) The Globalizing Learning Economy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.147–62.

            119. (2001) As Time Goes by: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

            120. (2017) ‘The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation?’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, pp.254–80.

            121. (2002) Capitalism and Freedom, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

            122. (2009) ‘The role of income inequality in a multivariate cross-national analysis of the digital divide’, Social Science Computer Review, 27, 1, pp.41–58.

            123. (2004) ‘From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory’, Research Policy, 33, 6/7, pp.897–920.

            124. (2003) ‘Digital divides in New South Wales: a research note on socio-spatial inequality using 2001 census data on computer and internet technology’, Australian Geographer, 34, 2, pp.239–57.

            125. (2017) ‘Inequality between and within skill groups: the curious case of India’, World Development, 93, pp.153–76.

            126. (2018) ‘The impact of technological progress on labour markets: policy challenges’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 34, 3, pp.362–75.

            127. (2014) ‘Explaining job polarization: routine-biased technological change and offshoring’, American Economic Review, 104, 8, pp.2509–26.

            128. (2020) ‘Innovation ecosystems: a conceptual review and a new definition’, Technovation, 90, 1, paper 102098.

            129. (1998) ‘New industrial cities? The four faces of Silicon Valley’, Review of Radical Political Economics, 30, 4, pp.1–28.

            130. (2018) ‘Studying configurations with qualitative comparative analysis: best practices in strategy and organization research’, Strategic Organization, 16, 4, pp.482–95.

            131. (2019) ‘Analysis on the relationship between regional innovation and income inequality in Chinese city regions’, Professional Geographer, 71, 3, pp.472–90.

            132. (2015) ‘Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews’, Conservation Biology, 29, 6, pp.1596–1605.

            133. (eds) (2001) Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

            134. (2004) ‘Is there a wage payoff to innovative work practices?’, Industrial Relations, 43, 1, pp.67–97.

            135. (2014) ‘Putting the bias in skill-biased technological change? A relational perspective on white-collar automation at General Electric’, American Behavioral Scientist, 58, 3, pp.400–15.

            136. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford University Press, New York.

            137. (2001) ‘Trade, technology and UK wage inequality’, Economic Journal, 111, 468, pp.163–87.

            138. (2012) ‘The relationship between inequality and innovative activity: a Schumpeterian theory and evidence from cross-country data’, Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 59, 2, pp.224–48.

            139. (2014) ‘New models of inclusive innovation for development’, Innovation and Development, 4, 2, pp.175–85.

            140. (2001) ‘Where Schumpeter was nearly right – the Swedish model and capitalism, socialism and democracy’, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 11, 3, pp.331–58.

            141. (2010) ‘When is cheap, cheap enough to bridge the digital divide? Modeling income related structural challenges of technology diffusion in Latin America’, World Development, 38, 5, pp.756–70.

            142. (2012) ‘A survey of the innovation surveys’, Journal of Economic Surveys, 26, 3, pp.420–44.

            143. (2019) ‘The transition to the knowledge economy, labor market institutions, and income inequality in advanced democracies’, World Politics, 71, 2, pp.236–88.

            144. (2006) ‘Inequality and the knowledge economy: running to stand still?’, Social Policy and Society, 5, 2, pp.207–22.

            145. (2011) ‘Income inequality and technology diffusion: evidence from developing countries’, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 113, 2, pp.364–87.

            146. (2015), ‘Democratic limits to redistribution: inclusionary versus exclusionary coalitions in the knowledge economy’, World Politics, 67, 2, pp.185–225.

            147. (1998) ‘Technology choice and income distribution’, Technological Systems and Development, 21, 5, pp.105–30.

            148. (2013) ‘Rising income inequality: technology, or trade and financial globalization?’, IMF Economic Review, 61, 2, pp.271–309.

            149. (2014) ‘Men, women, and machines: how trade impacts gender inequality’, Journal of Development Economics, 106, pp.179–93.

            150. (2016) Innovation and its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

            151. (2018) ‘Mediating role of entrepreneurship in explaining the association between income inequality and regional economic performance’, Economic Development Quarterly, 32, 2, pp.135–45.

            152. (2021) ‘University ownership and information about the¨ entrepreneurial opportunity in commercialisation: a systematic review and realist synthesis of the literature’, Journal of Technology Transfer, 46, 1, pp.1487–1513.

            153. (2016) ‘Why has wage inequality evolved so differently between Japan and the US? The role of the supply of college-educated workers’, Economics of Education Review, 52, pp.29–50.

            154. (2021) What Happened to CEO Pay in 2020?, technical report, High Pay Centre, London.

            155. (2006)‘Why did wage inequality increase? Evidence from urban India 1983–99’, Journal of Development Economics, 81, 1, pp.97–117.

            156. (2008) ‘Does inequality increase productivity? Evidence from US manufacturing industries, 1979 to 1996’, Work and Occupations, 35, 1, pp.85–114.

            157. (2017) ‘The case of crowdfunding in financial inclusion: a survey’, Strategic Change, 26, 2, pp.193–212.

            158. (2017) Template Analysis for Business and Management Students, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

            159. (1986) ‘An overview of innovation’ in (eds) The Positive Sum Strategy: Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth, National Academy of Engineering, Washington DC.

            160. (2013) ‘The capitalist machine: computerization, workers’ power, and the decline in labor’s share within US industries’, American Sociological Review, 78, 3, pp.361–89.

            161. (2017) ‘The causes of rising wage inequality: the race between institutions and technology’, Socio-Economic Review, 15, 1, pp.187–212.

            162. (1993) ‘How computers have changed the wage structure: evidence from microdata, 1984–1989’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108, 1, pp.33–60.

            163. (2000) ‘Capital-skill complementarity and inequality: a macroeconomic analysis’, Econometrica, 68, 5, pp.1029–53.

            164. (1955) ‘Economic growth and income inequality’, American Economic Review, 45, 1, pp.1–28.

            165. (2016) ‘Global income distribution: from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession’, World Bank Economic Review, 30, 2, pp.203–32.

            166. (2001) ‘The consequences of state economic development strategies on income distribution in the American states, 1976 to 1994’, American Politics Research, 29, 4, pp.392–415.

            167. (1997) Economics and Reality, Routledge, Milton Park UK.

            168. (2009) ‘Technicians: skills, age and gender profiles and training implications in Oxfordshire’, Professional Geographer, 61, 1, pp.59–69.

            169. (2000) ‘Economic imperialism’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 1, pp.99–146.

            170. (2013) ‘The risk-reward nexus in the innovation inequality relationship. Who takes the risks? Who gets the rewards?’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 22, 4, pp.1093–1128.

            171. (2011) ‘Are innovative regions more unequal? Evidence from Europe’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 29, 1, pp.2–23.

            172. (2016) ‘Growth with inequality? The local consequences of innovation and creativity’ in (eds) Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK, pp. 419–31.

            173. (2019) ‘Inclusive growth in cities: a sympathetic critique’, Regional Studies, 53, 3, pp.424–34.

            174. (2013) ‘Innovation and spatial inequality in Europe and USA’, Journal of Economic Geography, 13, 1, pp.1–22.

            175. (2008) ‘The changing nature of wage inequality’, Journal of Population Economics, 21, 1, pp.21–48.

            176. (2013) ‘Financialization and US income inequality, 1970–2008’, American Journal of Sociology, 118, 5, pp.1284–1329.

            177. (2009) ‘Welfare states, labour market institutions and the working poor: a comparative analysis of 20 European countries’, European Sociological Review, 25, 4, pp.489–504.

            178. (2007) The Years of High Econometrics: A Short History of the Generation that Reinvented Economics, Routledge, London.

            179. (2002) Innovation, Growth and Social Cohesion: The Danish Model, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK.

            180. (2013) ‘Innovation studies: a personal interpretation of the state of the art’ in (eds) Innovation Studies: Evolution and Future Challenges, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.20–70.

            181. (2015) ‘Emperor’s new clothes: the reinvention of peer review as myth’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 24, 3, pp.264–79.

            182. (2011) ‘The skewed few: people and papers of quality in management studies’, Organization, 18, 4, pp.467–75.

            183. (1998) ‘Recent shifts in wage inequality and the wage returns to education in Britain’, National Institute Economic Review, 166, pp.87–96.

            184. (2000) ‘What caused earnings inequality to increase in Canada during the 1980s?’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24, 2, pp.153–75.

            185. (2018) ‘The mismeasure of science: citation analysis’, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 69, 3, pp.474–82.

            186. (2006) ‘The influence of earnings on income distribution in the United States’, Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 4, pp.710–26.

            187. (2012) ‘The evolution of science policy and innovation studies’, Research Policy, 41, 7, pp.1219–39.

            188. (2016) ‘Twenty challenges for innovation studies’, Science and Public Policy, 43, 3, pp.432–50.

            189. (2007) ‘The income digital divide: trends and predictions for levels of internet use’, Social Problems, 54, 1, pp.1–22.

            190. (2015) ‘Structural change and wage inequality in the manufacturing sector: long run evidence from East Asia’, Oxford Development Studies, 43, 2, pp.212–31.

            191. (1999) Capital: A New Abridgement, Oxford University Press Oxford.

            192. (2000) ‘Gender and the new inequality: explaining the college/non-college wage gap’, American Sociological Review, 65, 2, pp.234–55.

            193. (2019) ‘Measuring inequality’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 35, 3, pp.368–95.

            194. (2018), ‘Industrial employment and income inequality: evidence from panel data’, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 45, pp.84–93.

            195. (2015), ‘Inequality in the network society: an integrated approach to ICT access, basic skills, and complex capabilities’, Telecommunications Policy, 39 3/4, pp.192–207.

            196. (2009) ‘Trade and income inequality in developing countries’, World Development, 37, 2, pp.287–302.

            197. (2016) Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.

            198. (2003) ‘Wage inequality and the new economy in the US: does IT-led growth generate wage inequality’, Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, pp.S203–S221.

            199. (2007) ‘US wage inequality, technological change, and decline in union power’, Politics and Society, 35, 2, pp.225–63.

            200. (2007) ‘Unpacking the assumption of gender neutrality: Akshaya project of the Kerala IT mission in India’, Gender, Technology and Development, 11, 1, pp.75–95.

            201. (2021) ‘Inequality in the time of Corona virus’, Journal of Management Studies, 58, 2, pp.607–10.

            202. (2019) ‘Innovation and entrepreneurship in a context of poverty: a multilevel approach’, Small Business Economics, 56, pp.1601–17.

            203. (2007) ‘Inequality: causes and consequences’, Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 1, pp.335–57.

            204. (2003) ‘Social capital and the e valuation of innovation policies’, International Journal of Technology Management, 26, 2/4, pp.205–25.

            205. OECD (2011) Divided we Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising, OECD, Paris.

            206. OECD (2015) In it Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All, OECD, Paris.

            207. (2019) ‘Spatial analysis of urban digital divide in Kigali, Rwanda’, GeoJournal, 84, 3, pp.719–41.

            208. (1990) ‘Modern rice technology and regional wage differentials in the Philippines’, Agricultural Economics, 4, 3/4, pp.297–314.

            209. (2016) ‘Marx and Sen on incentives and justice: implications for innovation and development’, Progress in Development Studies, 16, 4, pp.297–313.

            210. (2000) ‘Men n the hood: skill, spatial, and social mismatch among male workers in Los Angeles County’, Urban Geography, 21, 6, pp.474–96.

            211. (1984) ‘Sectoral patterns of technical change: towards a taxonomy and a theory’, Research Policy, 13, 6, pp.343–73.

            212. (1975) ‘Inequality and poverty: A Marxist-Geographic theory’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 65, 4, pp.564–71.

            213. (2013) ‘Innovation systems and policy for development in a changing world’, in (eds) Innovation Studies: Evolution and Future Challenges, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.90–110.

            214. (2008) Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

            215. (2005) ‘Innovation and employment’ in (eds) Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.568–98.

            216. (2018) ‘Technology and employment: twelve stylised facts for the digital age’, Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 61, 2, pp.189–225.

            217. (2020) ‘Technology and work: key stylized facts for the digital age’ in (ed.) Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, Springer, Cham Switzerland, pp.1–17.

            218. (2010) The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone, Penguin, Harmondsworth UK.

            219. (2014) Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Belknap Press, Cambridge MA.

            220. (2009) ‘A guide to writing the dissertation literature review’, Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 14, 1, paper 13.

            221. (2015) ‘Bringing inequality back in: the economic inequality footprint of management and organizational practices’, Human Relations, 68, 7, pp.1085–97.

            222. (1891) Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, G. Bell & Sons, London.

            223. (2018) ‘ICT and income inequality: a cross-national perspective’, International Review of Applied Economics, 32, 2, pp.195–214.

            224. (2010) ‘Who benefits from promoting small enterprises? Some empirical evidence from Ethiopia’, World Development, 38, 4, pp.523–40.

            225. (2021) The Digital Innovation Race: Conceptualizing the Emerging New World Order, Palgrave, New York.

            226. (1995) Diffusion of Innovations, Free Press, New York.

            227. (2010) Economics, McGraw-Hill, New York.

            228. (2017) ‘Income inequality and technological adoption’, Journal of Economic Issues, 51, 4, pp.979–1000.

            229. (2000a) ‘For postdisciplinary studies: sociology and the curse of disciplinary parochialism/imperialism’ in (eds) For Sociology: Legacies and Prospects, Sociologypress, Durham, pp.83–91.

            230. (2000b) Realism and Social Science, Sage, London.

            231. (2015) Why we Can’t Afford the Rich, Policy Press, Cambridge.

            232. (2018) ‘Three frames for innovation policy: R&D, systems of innovation and transformative change’, Research Policy, 47, 9, pp.1554–67.

            233. (1934) The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle, Transaction Books, New Brunswick NJ.

            234. (1944) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, HarperPerennial, New York.

            235. (2015) ‘The triumph of neoliberalism and the world dominance of capitalism’, Prometheus, 33, 2, pp.97–111.

            236. (2017) ‘The effect of knowledge economy factors on income inequality in the selected Islamic countries’, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8, 4, pp.1174–88.

            237. (1776/1982) The Wealth of Nations: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Penguin, Harmondsworth UK.

            238. (2005) ‘Measuring innovation’ in (eds) Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.148–79.

            239. (2010) ‘Technological change in capitalism: some Marxian themes’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34, 1, pp.203–12.

            240. (2013) ‘Is innovation always good?’ in (eds) Innovation Studies: Evolution and Future Challenges, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.134–44.

            241. (1956) ‘A contribution to the theory of economic growth’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70, 1, pp.65–94.

            242. (1957) ‘Technical change and the aggregate production function’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 39, 3, pp.312–20.

            243. (1967) Luxury and Capitalism, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor MI.

            244. (2019) ‘Firming up inequality’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 134, 1, pp.1–50.

            245. (2012) The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers our Future, W.W. Norton, New York.

            246. (2017) ‘Determinants of the wage share: a panel analysis of advanced and developing economies’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 55, 1, pp.3–33.

            247. (2006) ‘UK wage inequality: an industry and regional perspective’, Labour, 20, 1, pp.91–124.

            248. . (2021) ‘Immigrant-biased technological change: the effect of new technology implementation on native and non-Western immigrant employment in the Netherlands’, Social Forces, 31 August.

            249. (2012) ‘A limited revolution: the distributional consequences of open source software in North America’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79, 2, pp.244–51.

            250. (1992) ‘Effect of modern rice varieties and irrigation on household income distribution in Nepalese villages’, Agricultural Economics, 7, 34, pp.245–65.

            251. (2018) ‘Taking the sector seriously: data, developments, and drivers of intrasectoral earnings inequality’, Social Indicators Research, 138, 3, pp.1023–48.

            252. (2018) Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change, John Wiley, Hoboken NJ.

            253. (1998) Durable Inequality, University of California Press, Berkeley CA.

            254. (2014) ‘The relational generation of workplace inequalities’, Social Currents, 1, 1, pp.51–73.

            255. (2019) Relational Inequalities: An Organizational Approach, Oxford University Press, New York.

            256. (2003) ‘Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review’, British Journal of Management, 14, 3, pp.207–22.

            257. (2011) ‘Is inequality good for innovation?’, International Regional Science Review, 34, 1, pp.75–101.

            258. (2014) ‘Relational models of organizational inequalities: Emerging approaches and conceptual dilemmas’, American Behavioral Scientist, 58, 2, pp.228–55.

            259. . (2011) ‘Wage inequality, technology and trade: 21st century evidence’, Labour Economics, 18, 6, pp.730–41.

            260. (1899/2009) The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

            261. (2008) ‘Skill-biased technical change’ in (ed.) New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp.1–6.

            262. (2011) ‘Income inequality and the development of environmental technologies’, Ecological Economics, 70, 11, pp.2201–13.

            263. (2005) ‘“Meta interpretation”: a method for the interpretive synthesis of qualitative research’, Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 6, 1, pp.1–22.

            264. (2001) ‘Endogenous innovation growth theory and regional income convergence in China’, Journal of International Development, 13, 2, pp.153–68.

            265. (2009) ‘Innovation, inequality and intellectual property rights’, World Development, 37, 5, pp.889–901.

            266. (2005) ‘Cities, skills, and inequality’, Growth and Change, 36, 3, pp.329–53.

            267. do (2019) ‘Is 3D printing an inclusive innovation? An examination of 3D printing in Brazil’, Technovation, 80, pp.54–62.

            268. (1994) Interrogating Inequality: Essays on Class Analysis, Socialism, and Marxism, Verso, London.

            269. (2015) ‘What motivates entrepreneurial entry under economic inequality? The role of human and financial capital’, Human Relations, 68, 7, pp.1183–1207.

            270. (2008) ‘Trade, technology, and China’s rising skill demand’, Economics of Transition, 16, 1, pp.59–84.

            271. (2013) ‘Creating incentives for innovation? The relationship between pay dispersion in R&D groups and firm innovation performance’, Strategic Management Journal, 34, 12, pp.1502–11.

            272. (2009) Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage, Los Angeles.

            273. (2017) ‘Distribution sensitive innovation policies: conceptualization and empirical examples’, Research Policy, 46, 1, pp.327–36.


            Comment on this article