+1 Recommend
1 collections

      If you have found this article useful and you think it is important that researchers across the world have access, please consider donating, to ensure that this valuable collection remains Open Access.

      ReOrient is published by Pluto Journals, an Open Access publisher. This means that everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles from our international collection of social science journals, and the authors don’t pay an author processing charge (APC’s).

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Was Egyptian Islamic Revivalism really Counter-Hegemonic? Sayyid Qutb and the Problem of Islamic Occidentalism

      Pluto Journals
      Islamic revivalism, occidentalism, supremacism, hegemonic–counter-hegemonic, Sayyid Qutb


            Following the great fragmentation in the Arab world today, as well as the problematic de-colonization phase, it would be relevant to investigate whether Arab-Islamic Egyptian revivalism has been truly capable of shaping a counter-hegemonic narrative against Western colonialism and post-colonialism in the twentieth century. Can we consider Sayyid Qutb's political and religious analysis, as well as his formative background, a concrete counter-hegemonic narrative? Was the narrative of Rashid Rida and Hasan al-Banna solidly based on religious Islamic concepts and meanings? The main aim of this article is to reconsider the contemporary understanding of Islamic Egyptian thought in relation to Buruma and Margalit's proposed Occidentalism methodology, on the one hand, and the hegemonic–counter-hegemonic debate, on the other.


            Author and article information

            Pluto Journals
            1 October 2019
            : 5
            : 1 ( doiID: 10.13169/reorient.5.issue-1 )
            : 47-72
            University of Navarra
            © 2019 Pluto Journals

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            Custom metadata

            Literary studies,Religious studies & Theology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,History,Philosophy
            Islamic revivalism,supremacism,hegemonic–counter-hegemonic,occidentalism,Sayyid Qutb


            1. 'Abd al-Rahman Abdulrahman 'Abd al-Rahim (2010) The Effect of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's Salafiyya Da'wa on Religious and Social Reform in Egypt, in Semmari, Fahd al (ed.), A History of the Arabian Peninsula. London: I.B. Tauris, 138–39.

            2. 'Abduh, M. (2002) Risalat al-Tawhid. Translated by Rami, G. Bologna: il Ponte.

            3. Abu-Rabi', I. M. (1996) Intellectual Origins of Islamic Resurgence in the Modern Arab World. New York: Suny Press.

            4. Abu-Rabi', I. M. (2010) The Contemporary Arab Reader of Political Thought. London: Pluto Press.

            5. Al-Azmeh, A. (1997) Muslim Kingship: Power and the Sacred in Muslim and Pagan Polities. London: I. B. Tauris.

            6. Al-Afghani, J. ad-D. (1983) An Islamic response to Imperialism. Religious and Political writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani. Translated by Keddie, N. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

            7. Al-Banna, H. (1935) Da'watuna, in Jaridat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin.

            8. Al-Banna, H. (1957) Nahw al-Nur. Translated in Orient 1/4, 37–62.

            9. Al-Banna, H. (1981) Majmu'at Rasa'il al-Imam al-Shahid Hasan al-Banna. Beirut: al-Mu'sassa al-Islamiyya.

            10. Al-Banna, H. (1968) New Renaissance. In Karpat, K. H. (ed.). Political and Social Thought in Contemporary Middle East. New York: Frederick and Praeger.

            11. Al-Manar. (1906-1907) Volume 9.

            12. Al-Manar. (1925) Volume 26.

            13. Al-Manar. (1926) Volume 27.

            14. Al-Manar. (1928) Volume 29.

            15. Awdah, A. Q. (2010) Islam between Ignorant Followers and Incapable Scholars. In Abu Rabi', I. M. (ed.). The Contemporary Arab leader of Political Islam. London: Pluto Press.

            16. Baruma, I. and Margalit, A. (2004) Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of its Enemies. Translated by Isola, N. London: Atlantic Books.

            17. Bassiouni, C. (2013) The Shari'a and Islamic Criminal Justice in Time of War and Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

            18. Belén Soage, A. (2008) Rashid Rida's Legacy. The Muslims World. 98, 2–23.

            19. Belkeziz, A. (2009) The State in Contemporary Islamic Thought: A Historical Survey of the Major Muslim Political Thinkers of the Modern Age. London: I. B. Tauris.

            20. Biko, S. (1974) Black Consciousness and the Quest for a True Humanity: The Challenge of Black Theology. Edited by B. Moore. Atlanta: John Knox Press.

            21. Biko, S. (1978) Black Consciousness and the Quest for True Humanity. Ufhamu: a Journal of African Studies. 11 (1), 133–42.

            22. Biko, S. (2002) I write what I like: selective writings of Steve Biko. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

            23. Butko, T. J. (2004) Revelation and Revolution: a Gramscian Approach to the Rise of Political Islam. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 31 (1), 141–62.

            24. Calvert, J. (2010) Sayyid Qutb and the Origin of Islamic Radicalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

            25. Campanini, M. (2012) L'alternativa Islamica. Milan: Bruno Mondadori.

            26. Carré, O. (1984) Note sur la politique de Hasan al-Banna et celle de Sayyid Qutb d'apres leurs écrits. Mélanges de l'Université Saint Joseph. Beirut: Dar al-Mashrek.

            27. Carrier, J. G. (1995) Occidentalism. Images of the West. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

            28. Commins, D. (2006) The Wahhabi mission and Saudi Arabia. London: I. B. Tauris.

            29. Corm, G. (2015) Pensée et politique dans le monde arabe. Paris: La Decouverte Ed.

            30. Davis, A. (1973) Lectures on Liberation. Los Angeles: Peace Press.

            31. Esack, F. (1997) Qur'an, Liberation and Pluralism: An Islamic Perspective of Inter-religious Solidarity against Oppression. Oxford: Oneworld.

            32. Fanon, F. (1963) The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press.

            33. Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Press.

            34. Fox, J. (2004) The Rise of Religious Nationalism and Conflict: Ethnic Conflict and Revolutionary Wars 1945–2001. Journal of Peace Research. 41 (6), 715–31.

            35. Goddard, H. (1996) Muslim Perceptions of Christianity. London: Grey Seal Books.

            36. Gramsci, A. (2014) Quaderni dal Carcere. 4 vols. Turin: Einaudi.

            37. Haddad, M. (1997) Arab Religious Nationalism in the Colonial Era: rereading Rashid Rida's ideas on the caliphate. JAOS. 117 (2), 253–77.

            38. Hallaq, W. (2012) The Impossible State: Islam, Politics and Modernity's Moral Predicament. New York: Columbia University Press.

            39. Hallaq, W. (2018) Restating Orientalism: A Critique of Modern Knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press.

            40. Hanafi, H. (2018) Des Idéologie modernistes à l'Islam Révolutionnaire. In Peuples Méditerranéens. Edited by M. Campanini. Milano: Jaca Book.

            41. Hanafi, H. (1995) From Orientalism to Occidentalism. In Hanafi, H. (ed.). Islam in the Modern World, vol. 2. Cairo: The Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop, 353–65.

            42. Hanafi, H. (2002) Alternative Conceptions of Civil Society: A Reflective Islamic Approach. In Hashmi, S. H. (ed.). Islamic Political Ethics. Civil Society, Pluralism and Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 56–75.

            43. Hanafi, H. (2018) La Teologia Islamica della Liberazione. Milan: Jaca Book.

            44. Hassan, M.H. (2017) Civil Disobedience in Islam: A Contemporary Debate. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

            45. Hourani, A. (1983) Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

            46. 'Imara, M. (1972) Al- A'mal al-Kamilah li'-l Imam M. 'Abduh. 3 vols. Beirut: al-Mu'asasah al-'Arabiyyah li-l Dirasat wa'l Nashr.

            47. Issawi, C. (1980) Europe, the Middle East and the Shift in Power: reflections on the theme by Marshall Hodgson. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 22 (4), 487–504.

            48. Keddie, N. (1968) Sayyid Jamal al-Afghani: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

            49. Kedourie, E. (1966) Afghani and Abduh: An Essay on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modern Islam. New York: Humanities Press.

            50. Kepel, G. (1985) Muslim Extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and Pharaoh. Berkeley: University of California Press.

            51. Khalidi, S. D. (1986) Amrika min al-dakhil bi-minzar Sayyid Qutb. Jeddah: Dar al-Manara.

            52. Khatab, S. (2002) Hakimiyyah and Jahiliyyah in the Thought of Sayyid Qutb. Middle Eastern Studies. 38 (3), 145–70.

            53. Knobler, A. (2006) Holy Wars, Empires and the Portability of the Past: The Modern Uses of Medieval Crusades. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 48, 293–325.

            54. Lauziere, H. (2010) The Construction of Salafiyya: Reconsidering Salafism from the Perspective of Conceptual History. Ijmes. 42, 369–89.

            55. Lauziere, H. (2015) Making of Salafism. New York: Columbia University Press.

            56. Mallette, K. (2010) European Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean: Towards a New Philology of a Counter-orientalism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

            57. Manduchi P., Marchi A., Vacca G. (eds). (2018) Gramsci nel Mondo Arabo. Bologna: Il Mulino Ed.

            58. Matthee, R. (1989) Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani and the Egyptian National Debate. Ijmes 21 (2), 151–69.

            59. Melek, A. A. (1962) Égypte: societé militaire. Paris: Editions du Seuile.

            60. Melek, A. A. (1963) Orientalism in Crisis. Diogenes. 11, 103–40.

            61. Mura, A. (2012) A Genealogical Inquiry into Early Islamism: The Discourse of Hasan al-Banna. Journal of Political Ideologies, 17 (1), 61–85.

            62. Mura, A. (2015) The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism: A Study in Islamic Political Thought. London: Routledge.

            63. Musallam, A. (2005) From Secularism to Jihad: Sayyid Qutb and the Foundation of Radical Islamism. Westport: Praeger.

            64. Qutb, S. (n.d.) Tifl min al-Qaryah. Beirut: Dar al-Hikmah.

            65. Qutb, S. (1962) Al-Mustaqbal li-Hadha ad-Din. Cairo: Maktabat Wahbah.

            66. Qutb, S. (1966) Mashahid al-Qiyama fi'l Qur'an. Cairo: Dar al-Ma'arif.

            67. Qutb, S. (1974) Ma'arakat al-Islam wa'l ra'smaliyya. Cairo: Dar al-Shuruq.

            68. Qutb, S. (1974) Fa Zilal al-Qur'an. 6 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Shuruq.

            69. Qutb, S. (1980) Al-'Adala al-Ijtima'iyya fi'l Islam. Translated by Hardie, J. B. New York: Octagon Books.

            70. Qutb, S. (2006) Milestones. Birmingham: Maktabah.

            71. Rahman, F. (1977) The Religious Situation of Mecca from the Eve of Islam Up to the Hijra. Islamic Studies, 16 (4), 289–301.

            72. Rahman, F. (1984) Islam and Modernity. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

            73. Redissi, H. (2007) Le Pact du Najd: Ou comment l'Islam Sectaire est devenu l'Islam. Paris: Seuil Ed.

            74. Rida, R. (1925) Al-Wahhabiyyun wa-l-Hijaz. Cairo: Matba 'at al-Manar.

            75. Roy, O. (2008) La Sainte Ignorance: Les temps de la religion sans culture. Paris: Seuil Ed.

            76. Said, E. (1978) Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.

            77. Sedgwick, M. (2010) Muhammad 'Abduh. Oxford: Oneworld.

            78. Shariati, A. (1980) Marxism and other Western fallacies. An Islamic Critique. North Haledon, NJ: Mizan Press.

            79. Shepard, W. (1992) The Development of the Thought of Sayyid Qutb as Reflected in Earlier and Later Editions of Social Justice in Islam. Die Welt des Islams, new series. 32 (2), 196–236.

            80. Shepard, W. (2003) Sayyid Qutb's Doctrine of Jahiliyya. Ijmes. 35 (4), 521–45.

            81. Siberry, E. (2000) The New Crusades: Images of the Crusades in the 19th–20th Centuries. London: Ashgate.

            82. Simms, R. (2002) Black Theology, A Weapon in the Struggle for Freedom: A Gramscian Analysis. Race and Society. 2 (2), 165–93.

            83. Sivan, E. (1985) Radical Islam. Medieval Theology and Modern Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

            84. Soage, B. (2008). Rashid Rida's Legacy. The Muslim World. 98 (1), 1–23.

            85. Tibi, B. (2009) Islam's Predicament with Modernity. Religious Reform and Cultural Change. London: Routledge.

            86. Tolan, J., Veinstein, G. and Laurens, H. (2013) Europe and the Islamic World. A History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

            87. Xiaomei Chen. (1995) Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China. New York: Oxford University Press.

            88. Zahid, M. (2012) The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's succession crisis. The Politics of Liberalisation and Reform in the Middle East. London: I. B. Tauris.


            Comment on this article