165
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
       
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Beyond ‘platformisation’ : Designing a mixed-methods approach to inspect (digital) working conditions through organisational systems

      research-article
      Bookmark

            Abstract

            The transformations brought by the digitisation of work and the emergence of platform labour have deep implications for working conditions. However, researchers face difficulties studying platformised work. Workers’ invisibilisation and the lack of physical co-presence renders field access difficult. How can the variety of platforms, their organisational systems and the working conditions they offer be accounted for? In this article, we propose a mixed-methods methodology to study platforms in all their diversity by articulating the macro level – the market structure revealed through a multiple correspondence analysis – and the micro level – detailed studies of targeted platforms carried out using desk research. We apply this method in two projects, and, in each case, a typology emerges that supports the need for a diversification of the concept of ‘platform labour’ when related to working conditions.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Journal
            10.13169/workorgalaboglob
            Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation
            WOLG
            Pluto Journals
            1745-6428
            1745-641X
            14 May 2022
            2022
            : 16
            : 1
            : 52-71
            Article
            10.13169/workorgalaboglob.16.1.0052
            5c2f140b-f7e1-4164-83b2-3367524a60c4

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            Page count
            Pages: 20

            Sociology,Labor law,Political science,Labor & Demographic economics,Political economics
            mixed-method research,virtual work,multiple correspondence analysis,labour organisation,Platform work

            References

            1. (2016) ‘Uber, Taskrabbit, & Co.: Platforms as employers? Rethinking the legal analysis of crowdwork’ (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2733003), Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2733003

            2. (2018). Industrial Relations and Social Dialogue in the Age of Collaborative Economy (IRSDACE). National Report France, 21.

            3. (2018) European Legal Framework for ‘Digital Labour Platforms’, Brussels: European Commission and Joint Research Centre. http://publications.europa.eu/publication/manifestation_identifier/PUB_KJ0418843ENN

            4. (2000) ‘Le vocabulaire gouvernemental espagnol (1979–1996)’, Mots, 62:30–64.

            5. (2020) ‘Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on field instruction and remote teaching alternatives: Results from a survey of instructors’, Ecology and Evolution, 10 (22):12499–12507.

            6. (1977) ‘Histoire et préhistoire de l’analyse des données. Partie V L’analyse des correspondances’, Les cahiers de l’analyse des données, 1 (2):9–40.

            7. (2015) ‘Income security in the on-demand economy: Findings and policy lessons from a survey of crowdworkers’, Comparative Labour Law & Policy Journal, 37:543.

            8. (2018) Digital Labour Platforms and the Future of Work: Towards Decent Work in the Online World, Geneva: ILO.

            9. (1999) ‘Une révolution conservatrice dans l’édition’, Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 130:4–28.

            10. (2018) ‘Unemployment and online labor’, ZEW-Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper, 18-023.

            11. (2019) En attendant les robots: Enquête sur le travail du clic, Paris: Le Seuil.

            12. (n.d.) Le Micro-Travail en France: Derrière l’automatisation, de nouvelles précarités au travail?, [Research report], DipLAB Research Project.

            13. (2010) ‘A taxonomy of virtual work’ (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1649055), Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1649055

            14. (2018) The Emerging Issues for Management of Occupational Road Risk in a Changing Economy: A Survey of Gig Economy Drivers, Riders and their Managers, London: UCL Centre for Transport Studies.

            15. (2018) ‘Anatomy of an AI system’. Retrieved 18 September 2018.

            16. (2019) ‘The platform economy and social law: Key issues in comparative perspective’, SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3432441

            17. (2018) Employment and Working Conditions of Selected Types of Platform Work, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

            18. (2016) ‘Introduction: Crowdsourcing, the gig-economy and the law’, Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal, 37 (3).

            19. (2016) ‘The platform economy and the disruption of the employment relationship’, ETUI Research Paper-Policy Brief, 5.

            20. Eurofound (2018) Employment and Working Conditions of Selected Types of Platform Work, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

            21. (2017) The Social Protection of Workers in the Collaborative Economy, Brussels: European Parliament.

            22. (2000) High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy: Women, Work, and Pink-Collar Identities in the Caribbean, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

            23. (2017) ‘The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114:254–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019

            24. (2012) ‘Dallas Smythe today – the audience commodity, the digital labour debate, Marxist political economy and critical theory’, TripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society, 10 (2):692–740. https://doi.org/10.31269/triplec.v10i2.443

            25. (2001) La dactylographe et l’expéditionnaire: Histoire des employés de bureau, 1890–1930, Paris: Belin.

            26. (2019) ‘The global gig economy: Towards a planetary labour market?’, First Monday, 24 (4).

            27. (2017) ‘Digital labour and development : Impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods’, Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23 (2):135–162. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024258916687250

            28. (2019) Ghost Work : How to Stop Silicon Valley from Building a New Global Underclass, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

            29. (2001) Wired to the World, Chained to the Home: Telework in Daily Life, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press and Eurospan.

            30. (1993) ‘The case study in sociology: The contribution of methodological research in the French language’, Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie, 30 (4):488–509. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.1993.tb00651.x

            31. (1993) Case Study Methods, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

            32. (2020). The Platform Economy and Precarious Work. Study. Luxembourg: European Union.

            33. (2017) Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost its Edge in Computing, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

            34. (2013) ‘Towards a taxonomy of virtual work’, Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation, 7 (1): 31–50. https://doi.org/10.13169/workorgalaboglob.7.1.0031

            35. (2013) ‘Multiple correspondance analysis’ in (eds) Visualization and Verbalization of Data, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press:205–223.

            36. (2007) ‘The emergence of EMERGENCE: The challenge of designing research on the new international division of labour’, Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation, 1 (2):20–35.

            37. (2017) ‘Where did online platforms come from? The virtualization of work organization and the new policy challenges it raises’, in (eds) Policy Implications of Virtual Work, Cham: Springer International Publishing:29–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-52057-5_2

            38. (1999) Teleworking and Globalisation: Towards a Methodology for Mapping and Measuring the Emerging Global Division of Labour in the Information Economy, Grantham: Grantham Book Services, Ltd.

            39. (1993) Telework: Towards the Elusive Office (reprinted), Chichester: Wiley.

            40. (2019) ‘The platformisation of work in Europe: Results from research in 13 European countries’. https://doi.org/10.18745/ds.21600

            41. International Labour Organisation (2021) The Role of Digital Labour Platforms in Transforming the World of Work [Report]. http://www.ilo.org/global/research/global-reports/weso/2021/WCMS_771749/lang--en/index.htm

            42. (2018) Organizing On-Demand : Representation, Voice, and Collective Bargaining in the Gig Economy, Conditions of Work and Employment Series, 94, Geneva; ILO.

            43. (2016) ‘MissMDA: A package for handling missing values in multivariate data analysis’, Journal of Statistical Software, 70 (1):1–31.

            44. (2018) ‘Do digital skill certificates help new workers enter the market? Evidence from an online labour platform’ (No. 7810), CESifo Working Paper.

            45. (2017) The Platform Economy and Industrial Relations: Applying the Old Framework to the New Reality .

            46. (2020). Study to Gather Evidence on the Working Conditions of Platform Workers, Brussels: European Commission. https://doi.org/10.2767/26582

            47. (2021) ‘COVID-19 and fieldwork: Challenges and solutions’, Political Science & Politics, 1–6.

            48. (2008) ‘FactoMineR: An R package for multivariate analysis’, Journal of Statistical Software, 25 (1):1–18.

            49. (2014) ‘Historical elements of correspondence analysis and multiple correspondence analysis’, Visualization and Verbalization of Data, 31–44.

            50. (2016) Crowd Worker in Deutschland Eine empirische Studie zum Arbeitsumfeld auf externen Crowdsourcing-Plattformen. https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de: 101:1-2018072711081159366471

            51. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (1st paperback ed.), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

            52. (2019) ‘Algorithmic management in the workplace’, Data & Society, 1–15.

            53. (2020) ‘Means of control in the organization of digitally intermediated care work’, Work, Employment and Society, 0950017020969107. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017020969107

            54. (2018) ‘Spinning the web: The contradictions of researching and regulating digital work and labour’ in (eds) Technologies of Labour and the Politics of Contradiction, Cham: Springer International Publishing: 271–290. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76279-1_15

            55. (1992) ‘Global information processing: The emergence of software services and data entry jobs in selected developing countries’, ILO Working Papers, 992897713402676. International Labour Organisation. https://ideas.repec.org/p/ilo/ilowps/992897713402676.html

            56. (2020) ‘Defining the gig economy: Platform capitalism and the reinvention of precarious work’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-08-2020-0400

            57. (2017) ‘Engagement in the knowledge economy: Regional patterns of content creation with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa’, Information Technologies and International Development, 13:33–51.

            58. (2019) What’s Wrong with Work? Bristol: Policy Press.

            59. (2019) ‘Digital labour in central and eastern Europe: Evidence from the ETUI Internet and Platform Work Survey’, ETUI Research Paper-Working Paper.

            60. (1987) The Internationalisation of Clerical Work: A Study of Offshore Office Services in the Caribbean, Brighton: Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex.

            61. (2018) Humans as a Service: The Promise and Perils of Work in the Gig Economy (1st ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            62. (eds) (2009) Doing Sociology: Case Studies in Sociological Practice, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

            63. (2014) The Comparative Method, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

            64. (eds) (1992) What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

            65. (2012) Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory, London: Routledge.

            66. (2010) An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies (2nd ed.), Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

            67. (1991) ‘Work organization in Brazilian data processing centres: Consent and resistance’, Labour, Capital and Society / Travail, capital et société, 24 (2):154–183.

            68. (2010) Working Life: Renewing Labour Process Analysis, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

            69. (2020) ‘Riders on the storm: Workplace solidarity among gig economy couriers in Italy and the UK’, Work, Employment and Society, 34 (1):35–54.

            70. (2021) ‘Disembedded or deeply embedded? A multi-level network analysis of online labour platforms’, Sociology, 55 (5).

            71. (2020) ‘The trainer, the verifier, the imitator: Three ways in which human platform workers support artificial intelligence’, Big Data & Society, 7 (1).

            72. (2018) ‘Building an honest and capable crowd workforce’, SIGMIS-CPR: Proc. ACM SIGMIS Conf. Comput. People Res., 111-18. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1145/3209626.3209713

            73. (2014) The Fissured Workplace, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

            74. (2019) ‘Networked but commodified: The (dis) embeddedness of digital labour in the gig economy’, Sociology, 53 (5):931–950.

            75. (2018) Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods (6th ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

            76. (2016) ‘The communication network within the crowd’, Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on World Wide Web:1293–1303.

            Comments

            Comment on this article