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      Task-Specificity and Resource Allocation in Information Perception in Three-Dimensional Space

      People and Computers XXIII Celebrating People and Technology (HCI)

      Computers XXIII Celebrating People and Technology

      1 - 5 September 2009

      Human visual perception, information visualization, threedimensional space, 3D, dual-task, task-specificity, resource allocation, object detection, spatial cognition, augmented reality

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          Abstract

          Modern technologies are more and more capable of presenting information in three-dimensional space instead of being limited to a standard two-dimensional desktop workstation. Thus, it becomes necessary to examine whether display location does have an effect on human information perception and processing. This paper presents two studies concerned with this subject. The first study examined whether optimal display location depends on the task, which is being executed. We found evidence for differences in tasks with different cognitive engagement levels. The second study aimed at a) examining task characteristics in more detail and b) answering the basic question whether it is generally beneficial to present concurrent information in dual-task situations in two instead of one perceptual depth plane in order to optimize resource utilization. Results support the notion of a two-plane benefit.

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          Most cited references 6

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          The neuropsychology of 3-D space.

           Fred Previc (1998)
          The neuropsychological literature on 3-D spatial interactions is integrated using a model of 4 major behavioral realms: (a) peripersonal (visuomotor operations in near-body space), (b) focal extrapersonal (visual search and object recognition), (c) action extrapersonal (orienting in topographically defined space), and (d) ambient extrapersonal (orienting in earth-fixed space). Each is associated with a distinct cortical network: dorsolateral peripersonal, predominantly ventrolateral focal-extrapersonal, predominantly ventromedial action-extrapersonal, and predominantly dorsomedial ambient-extrapersonal systems. Interactions in 3-D space are also regulated neurochemically with dopaminergic and cholinergic excitation associated with extrapersonal activation and noradrenergic and serotonergic excitation associated with peripersonal activation. This model can help explain the 3-D imbalances in prominant neuropsychological disorders.
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            Modeling drivers' visual attention allocation while interacting with in-vehicle technologies.

            In 2 experiments, the authors examined how characteristics of a simulated traffic environment and in-vehicle tasks impact driver performance and visual scanning and the extent to which a computational model of visual attention (SEEV model) could predict scanning behavior. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated task-relevant information bandwidth and task priority. In Experiment 2, the authors examined task bandwidth and complexity, while introducing infrequent traffic hazards. Overall, task priority had a significant impact on scanning; however, the impact of increasing bandwidth was varied, depending on whether the relevant task was supported by focal (e.g., in-vehicle tasks; increased scanning) or ambient vision (e.g., lane keeping; no increase in scanning). The computational model accounted for approximately 95% of the variance in scanning across both experiments.
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              Neural consequences of acting in near versus far space: a physiological basis for clinical dissociations.

              We used PET to determine which brain regions are implicated when normal volunteers bisect horizontal lines and point to dots in near (peripersonal) or far (extrapersonal) space. Studies of line bisection in patients with right hemisphere lesions have shown that bisection performance can be severely impaired in either near or far space while remaining within normal limits in the other spatial domain. Likewise, clinical dissociations between pointing to objects in near and far space have been reported. The normal functional anatomy of these dissociations has not been demonstrated convincingly. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements using PET were carried out in 12 healthy right-handed male volunteers who bisected lines or pointed to dots in near or far space, using a laser pen. Subjects performing either task in near space showed neural activity in the left dorsal occipital cortex, left intraparietal cortex, left ventral premotor cortex and left thalamus. In far space, subjects performing either task showed activation of the ventral occipital cortex bilaterally and the right medial temporal cortex. These data provide physiological support for the clinically observed dissociations demonstrating that attending to and acting in near space differentially employs dorsal visuomotor processing areas, whereas attending to and acting in far space differentially draws on ventral visuoperceptual processing areas, even when the motor components of the tasks are identical when performed in the two spaces.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                September 2009
                September 2009
                : 184-187
                Affiliations
                Technische Universität Berlin

                Center of Human-Machine Systems

                Franklinstr. 28-29, 10587 Berlin, Germany

                +49(0)30 314-29932
                Article
                10.14236/ewic/HCI2009.21
                © Antje Lichtenstein. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. People and Computers XXIII Celebrating People and Technology, Churchill College Cambridge, UK

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                People and Computers XXIII Celebrating People and Technology
                HCI
                Churchill College Cambridge, UK
                1 - 5 September 2009
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Computers XXIII Celebrating People and Technology
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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