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Using Grounded Theory Methods to Inform the Design of an Authoring Tool

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Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014) (HCI)

BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014)

9 - 12 September 2014

Grounded Theory Methods, Design, Authoring tools, Autism

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      Abstract

      This paper presents and reflects on how Grounded Theory Methods (GTM) have enabled the construction of a conceptual framework for social story interventions, with the aim of informing the design of an authoring tool to support practitioners in developing social stories. Social stories are broadly used to enhance social interaction in children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The paper focuses on methodological issues rather than the outcomes. Five lessons have been drawn out with the intention of providing a guide for those who intend to apply GTM in order to inform the design of computer-based educational tools for ASC.

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      Increasing reading and communication skills in children with autism through an interactive multimedia computer program.

      This paper reports on the effect of using an interactive and child-initiated microcomputer program (Alpha) when teaching three groups of children (N = 30) reading and communications skills: (a) 11 children with autism (M chronological age, CA = 9:4 years), (b) 9 children with mixed handicaps (M CA = 13:1), and (c) 10 normal preschool children (M CA = 6:4 years). Their mental age varied from 5:8 years to 6:9 years and all children received computer instruction supplementary to their regular reading and writing activities. Tests of reading and phonological development were carried out at the onset of the training (Start), at the end (Post 1), and at a follow-up evaluation (Post 2). In addition, video observations of the childrens' verbal and nonverbal communication were added at Start and Post 1. The children with autism increased both their word reading and their phonological awareness through the use of the Alpha program. Clearly significant gains were observed during the intervention, but none during the follow-up period. A similar but weaker pattern is observed for the children with mixed handicaps. In contrast, the normal preschool children increased their scores regardless of the program. Analyses of the children's classroom behavior indicate that the intervention succeeded in stimulating verbal expressions among the children with autism and mixed handicap. A significant increase in enjoyment was also noted for the children with autism. It is concluded that the intervention with a motivating multimedia program might stimulate reading and communication in children with various developmental disabilities, but that such interventions must be individually based and include both detailed planning and monitoring from teachers, and parents, as well as from clinicians in charge.
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        Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism.

        Using our theoretical framework of multimodal processing, we developed and evaluated a computer-animated tutor, Baldi, to teach vocabulary and grammar for children with autism. Baldi was implemented in a Language Wizard/Player, which allows easy creation and presentation of a language lesson involving the association of pictures and spoken words. The lesson plan includes both the identification of pictures and the production of spoken words. In Experiment 1, eight children were given initial assessment tests, tutorials, and reassessment tests 30 days following mastery of the vocabulary items. All of the students learned a significant number of new words and grammar. A second within-subject design with six children followed a multiple baseline design and documented that the program was responsible for the learning and generalization of new words. The research indicates that children with autism are capable of learning new language within an automated program centered around a computer-animated agent, multimedia, and active participation and can transfer and use the language in a natural, untrained environment.
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          Computer-based interventions to improve social and emotional skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

          To review studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to improve the social and emotional skills (e.g. emotional recognition) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The use of computer-based intervention (CBI) in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may offer some advantages to traditional one-to-one or group instruction including easier differentiation of instruction, decreased distractions and the incorporation of an individual's relative visual learning strengths. However, the results of past research suggest varying outcomes for CBI with individuals with ASD. This review provides a systematic analysis of studies investigating CBI to improve social and emotional skills (e.g. emotion recognition) of individuals with ASD. Electronic database searches and ancestral searches were used to identify studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria. The included studies were then summarized in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) social and emotional skills targeted, (c) details of the CBI, (d) results, and (e) certainty of evidence. The results of these studies indicated that CBI's effect on social and emotional skills was mixed, with the majority of studies reporting unacceptable outcomes following intervention. Overall, this review suggests that the use of CBI to improve the social and emotional skills of individuals with ASD is a promising practice. A comparison of CBI plus tutoring and face-to-face social skills training suggests that CBI can be as effective as face-to-face instruction. Practitioners should carefully consider the preferences and existing abilities of individuals with ASD and the customizability of the software when deciding to use CBI and selecting a software program.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            University of Edinburgh

            Crichton St 10, Edinburgh, EH8 9AB
            University of Dundee

            Balfour St, DD1 4HD
            Contributors
            Conference
            September 2014
            September 2014
            : 177-182
            10.14236/ewic/HCI2014.27
            © Aurora Constantin et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014), Southport, UK

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014)
            HCI
            28
            Southport, UK
            9 - 12 September 2014
            Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
            BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014)
            Product
            Product Information: 1477-9358 BCS Learning & Development
            Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
            Categories
            Electronic Workshops in Computing

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