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      MathRun: An Adaptive Mental Arithmetic Game Using A Quantitative Performance Model

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      Proceedings of the 30th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI)

      Fusion

      11 - 15 July 2016

      Educational Games, Incentive Structure in Games, Adaptive Level Progression, Game Design for Children

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          Abstract

          Pedagogy and the way children learn are changing rapidly with the introduction of widely accessible computer technologies, from mobile apps to interactive educational games. Digital games have the capacity to embed many learning supports using the widely accredited VARK (visual, auditory, reading, and kinaesthetic) learning style. In this paper, we present a mathematics educational game MathRun for children age between 7-11 years old to practice mental arithmetic. We build the game as an interactive learning environment that fuses game mechanics with learning and uses the popular game genre “infinite runner” as the game mode. The game consists of an automatically generated infinite game map and mathematical questions also procedurally generated with varied levels of difficulty and complexity. A novel real-time performance evaluation method is developed for quantitative modeling the performance of the player. The model evaluates the performance in each primitive map block of the game map and level progression is automatically carried out based on the result of the evaluation. Therefore, the proposed game-based learning environment is adaptive to players with dynamic level progressions based on the combination of not only mathematics ability, but also gameplay skills of the player to facilitate learning processes through gameplay and appropriate adaptive progression of maths ability.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Neural correlates of simple and complex mental calculation.

          Some authors proposed that exact mental calculation is based on linguistic representations and relies on the perisylvian language cortices, while the understanding of proximity relations between numerical quantities implicates the parietal cortex. However, other authors opposed developmental arguments to suggest that number sense emerges from nonspecific visuospatial processing areas in the parietal cortex. Within this debate, the present study aimed at revealing the functional anatomy of the two basic resolution strategies involved in mental calculation, namely arithmetical fact retrieval and actual computation, questioning in particular the respective role of language and/or visuospatial cerebral areas. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography while subjects were at rest (Rest), read digits (Read), retrieved simple arithmetic facts from memory (i.e., 2 x 4, Retrieve), and performed mental complex calculation (i.e., 32 x 24, Compute). Compared to Read, Retrieve engaged a left parieto-premotor circuit representing a developmental trace of a finger-counting representation that mediates, by extension, the numerical knowledge in adult. Beside this basic network, Retrieve involved a naming network, including the left anterior insula and the right cerebellar cortex, while it did not engage the perisylvian language areas, which were deactivated as compared to Rest. In addition to this retrieval network, Compute specifically involved two functional networks: a left parieto-frontal network in charge of the holding of the multidigit numbers in visuospatial working memory and a bilateral inferior temporal gyri related to the visual mental imagery resolution strategy. Overall, these results provide strong evidence of the involvement of visuospatial representations in different levels of mental calculation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Video games: a route to large-scale STEM education?

            Video games have enormous mass appeal, reaching audiences in the hundreds of thousands to millions. They also embed many pedagogical practices known to be effective in other environments. This article reviews the sparse but encouraging data on learning outcomes for video games in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines, then reviews the infrastructural obstacles to wider adoption of this new medium.
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              Processing Pathways in Mental Arithmetic—Evidence from Probabilistic Fiber Tracking

              Numerical cognition is a case of multi-modular and distributed cerebral processing. So far neither the anatomo-functional connections between the cortex areas involved nor their integration into established frameworks such as the differentiation between dorsal and ventral processing streams have been specified. The current study addressed this issue combining a re-analysis of previously published fMRI data with probabilistic fiber tracking data from an independent sample. We aimed at differentiating neural correlates and connectivity for relatively easy and more difficult addition problems in healthy adults and their association with either rather verbally mediated fact retrieval or magnitude manipulations, respectively. The present data suggest that magnitude- and fact retrieval-related processing seem to be subserved by two largely separate networks, both of them comprising dorsal and ventral connections. Importantly, these networks not only differ in localization of activation but also in the connections between the cortical areas involved. However, it has to be noted that even though seemingly distinct anatomically, these networks operate as a functionally integrated circuit for mental calculation as revealed by a parametric analysis of brain activation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                July 2016
                July 2016
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                Department of Creative Technology Faculty of Science and Technology Bournemouth University, Fern Barrow Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB UK
                Article
                10.14236/ewic/HCI2016.77
                © Chen et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of British HCI 2016 Conference Fusion, Bournemouth, UK

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Proceedings of the 30th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
                HCI
                30
                Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
                11 - 15 July 2016
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Fusion
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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