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      Effects of Timing on Users’ Agency during Mixed-Initiative Interaction


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      Proceedings of the 31st International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2017) (HCI)

      digital make-believe, with delegates considering our expansive

      3 - 6 July 2017

      Mixed-Initiative Interaction, Sense of agency, Rhythm, Expectation

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          We explore the role of timing in situations where a human user and semi-autonomous software can each initiate actions, building on cognitive theories of rhythmic expectation and mutual temporal adaptation during conversation. Two controlled experiments demonstrate that adjustments to the rhythm of back-and- forth interaction have significant effects on perceived agency, task performance and stress. Conclusions include design guidance that establishing a predictable rhythm of interaction is likely to be beneficial for mixed initiative systems.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Motor-sensory recalibration leads to an illusory reversal of action and sensation.

          To judge causality, organisms must determine the temporal order of their actions and sensations. However, this judgment may be confounded by changing delays in sensory pathways, suggesting the need for dynamic temporal recalibration. To test for such a mechanism, we artificially injected a fixed delay between participants' actions (keypresses) and subsequent sensations (flashes). After participants adapted to this delay, flashes at unexpectedly short delays after the keypress were often perceived as occurring before the keypress, demonstrating a recalibration of motor-sensory temporal order judgments. When participants experienced illusory reversals, fMRI BOLD signals increased in anterior cingulate cortex/medial frontal cortex (ACC/MFC), a brain region previously implicated in conflict monitoring. This illusion-specific activation suggests that the brain maintains not only a recalibrated representation of timing, but also a less-plastic representation against which to compare it.
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            Beta and gamma rhythms in human auditory cortex during musical beat processing.

            We examined beta- (approximately 20 Hz) and gamma- (approximately 40 Hz) band activity in auditory cortices by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) during passive listening to a regular musical beat with occasional omission of single tones. The beta activity decreased after each tone, followed by an increase, thus forming a periodic modulation synchronized with the stimulus. The beta decrease was absent after omissions. In contrast, gamma-band activity showed a peak after tone and omission, suggesting underlying endogenous anticipatory processes. We propose that auditory beta and gamma oscillations have different roles in musical beat encoding and auditory-motor interaction.
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              Awareness of action: Inference and prediction.

              This study investigates whether the conscious awareness of action is based on predictive motor control processes, or on inferential "sense-making" process that occur after the action itself. We investigated whether the temporal binding between perceptual estimates of operant actions and their effects depends on the occurrence of the effect (inferential processes) or on the prediction that the effect will occur (predictive processes). By varying the probability with which a simple manual action produced an auditory effect, we showed that both the actual and the predicted occurrence of the effect played a role. When predictability of the effect of action was low, temporal binding was found only on those trials where the auditory effect occurred. In contrast, when predictability of the effect of action was high, temporal binding occurred even on trials where the action produced no effect. Further analysis showed that the predictive process is modulated by recent experience of the action-effect relation. We conclude that the experience of action depends on a dynamic combination of predictive and inferential processes.

                Author and article information

                July 2017
                July 2017
                : 1-12
                University of Cambridge

                Cambridge, UK
                © Yu et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of British HCI 2017 – Digital Make-Believe. Sunderland, UK.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Proceedings of the 31st International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2017)
                Sunderland, UK
                3 - 6 July 2017
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                digital make-believe, with delegates considering our expansive
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Electronic Workshops in Computing


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