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      Age and gender as independent risk factors for malware victimisation

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      Electronic Visualisation and the Arts (EVA 2017) (EVA)

      Electronic Visualisation and the Arts

      11 – 13 July 2017

      Human factor, Computer security, Malware, Field study

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          Abstract

          This paper presents the results of an empirical study we designed to investigate the independent effect of age and gender as potential risk factors for malware victimisation. Using data collected from Microsoft’s Windows Defender on a sample of three million devices running Windows 10, we found that both age and gender are contributing factors for malware victimisation. Men, and young men in particular, were more likely to encounter malware than women, and younger users were more at risk of encountering malware than their older counterparts. However, our findings suggest that the effect of age and gender is not constant across different types of malware. We also discuss potential causes and implications of these age and gender differences in malware victimisation.

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          Most cited references 45

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          A domain-specific risk-attitude scale: measuring risk perceptions and risk behaviors

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            INDIVIDUAL RISK ATTITUDES: MEASUREMENT, DETERMINANTS, AND BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES

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              Affective and deliberative processes in risky choice: age differences in risk taking in the Columbia Card Task.

              The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of the CCT, constituting the most direct test of a dual-system explanation of adolescent risk taking in the literature so far. The "hot" CCT was designed to trigger more affective decision making, whereas the "cold" CCT was designed to trigger more deliberative decision making. Differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes in the 2 CCT versions was established by self-reports and assessment of electrodermal activity. Increased adolescent risk taking, coupled with simplified information use, was found in the hot but not the cold condition. Need-for-arousal predicted risk taking only in the hot condition, whereas executive functions predicted information use in the cold condition. Results are consistent with recent dual-system explanations of risk taking as the result of competition between affective processes and deliberative cognitive-control processes, with adolescents' affective system tending to override the deliberative system in states of heightened emotional arousal. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                URI : www.polymtl.ca
                URI : www.polymtl.ca
                URI : www.appesteem.com
                Conference
                July 2017
                July 2017
                : 1-14
                Affiliations
                École Polytechnique de Montréal
                AppEsteem Corporation
                10.14236/ewic/HCI2017.48
                © Lévesque et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development. Proceedings of British HCI 2017 – Digital Make-Believe, Sunderland, UK.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Electronic Visualisation and the Arts (EVA 2017)
                EVA
                London, UK
                11 – 13 July 2017
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Electronic Visualisation and the Arts
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358 BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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