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      A Hindi Virtual Keyboard Interface with Multimodal Feedback: A Case Study with a Dyslexic Child


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      Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI)

      Human Computer Interaction Conference

      4 - 6 July 2018

      Virtual keyboard, graphical user interface, eye-tracking; multimodal feedback, dyslexia

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          Up to 15% of the Indian school-going children suffer from dyslexia. This paper aims to determine the extent to which existing knowledge about the eye-tracking based human-computer interface can be used to assist these children in their reading and writing activities. A virtual keyboard system with multimodal feedback is proposed and designed for a lexically and structurally complex language and optimized for multimodal feedback involving several portable, non-invasive, and low-cost input devices: a touch screen, an eye-tracker, and a soft-switch. The performance was evaluated in terms of text-entry rate, information transfer rate, and type of errors with three different experimental conditions: 1) touch-screen condition with auditory feedback 2) eye-tracking condition with auditory and visual feedback, and 3) eye-tracking and soft-switch condition with auditory and visual feedback. The proposed multimodal feedback has shown a significant improvement in text-entry rate with less error. This work represents the first virtual keyboard with multimodal feedback for dyslexic children in the Hindi language, which can be extended to other languages.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Neuronal correlates of visibility and invisibility in the primate visual system.

          A brief visual target stimulus may be rendered invisible if it is immediately preceded or followed by another stimulus. This class of illusions, known as visual masking, may allow insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie visual perception. We have therefore explored the temporal characteristics of masking illusions in humans, and compared them with corresponding neuronal responses in the primary visual cortex of awake and anesthetized monkeys. Stimulus parameters that in humans produce forward masking (in which the mask precedes the target) suppress the transient on-response to the target in monkey visual cortex. Those that produce backward masking (in which the mask comes after the target) inhibit the transient after-discharge, the excitatory response that occurs just after the disappearance of the target. These results suggest that, for targets that can be masked (those of short duration), the transient neuronal responses associated with onset and turning off of the target may be important in its visibility.
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            A dual-route perspective on eye movements of dyslexic readers.

            This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received only a single fixation or which were skipped and for the increased number of words with multiple fixations and a marked effect of word length on gaze duration. This pattern was interpreted as a frequent failure of orthographic whole-word recognition (based on orthographic lexicon entries) and on reliance on serial sublexical processing instead. Inefficiency of the lexical route was inferred from prolonged gaze durations for singly fixated words. These findings were related to the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control. Slow activation of word phonology accounted for the low skipping rate of dyslexic readers. Frequent reliance on sublexical decoding was inferred from a tendency to fixate word beginnings and from short forward saccades. Overall, the linkage of the dual-route model of single word reading and a model of eye movement control led to a useful framework for understanding eye movement abnormalities of dyslexic readers.
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              Reading words and pseudowords: an eye movement study of developmental dyslexia.

              The pattern of eye movements during reading was studied in 12 developmental dyslexics and in 10 age-matched controls. According to standard reading batteries, dyslexics showed marked reading slowness and prevalently used the sublexical procedure in reading. Eye movements were recorded while they read lists of short and long words or pseudowords. In normal readers, saccade amplitude increased with word length without a concomitant change in the number of saccades; in contrast, the number of saccades increased for long pseudowords. In dyslexics, the eye movement pattern was different. The number of saccades depended on stimulus length for both words and pseudowords while saccade amplitude remained small and constant. The sequential scanning shown by dyslexics for both words and pseudowords appears consistent with the cognitive description of the reading disorder which indicates the preferential use of the sublexical print-to-sound correspondence rules. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

                Author and article information

                July 2018
                July 2018
                : 1-5
                Intelligent Systems Research

                Centre, Ulster University

                Derry~Londonderry, UK
                Centre of Mechatronics

                Indian Institute of Technology

                Kanpur, India
                Department of Humanities and Social

                Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology

                Kanpur, India
                Department of Computer Science

                College of Science and Mathematics

                Fresno State University, USA
                © Meena et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of British HCI 2018. Belfast, UK.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Belfast, UK
                4 - 6 July 2018
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Electronic Workshops in Computing


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