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      Brain Stimulation and Brain Computer Interfacing

      1 , 1 , 1

      Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI)

      Human Computer Interaction Conference

      4 - 6 July 2018

      Brain Computer Interface, Electrical Stimulation, EEG, Working Memory

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          Abstract

          In this workshop paper, we present two of our team’s findings on the effect of brain electrical stimulation on BCI performance, reflecting a trend in neuro-engineering research. In many applications, BCI technology targets users with impaired neural activity and as such enhancement of such activity can be of great importance. We show that the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can significantly enhance an EEG potential (P300) which is used in BCI spellers. In addition, tDCS application also appears to improve working memory performance particularly relating to the recall of shapes.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory.

          Previous studies have claimed that weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces persisting excitability changes in the human motor cortex that can be more pronounced than cortical modulation induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of tDCS on working memory. Our aim was to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation, which enhances brain cortical excitability and activity, would modify performance in a sequential-letter working memory task when administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Fifteen subjects underwent a three-back working memory task based on letters. This task was performed during sham and anodal stimulation applied over the left DLPFC. Moreover seven of these subjects performed the same task, but with inverse polarity (cathodal stimulation of the left DLPFC) and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1). Our results indicate that only anodal stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex, but not cathodal stimulation of left DLPFC or anodal stimulation of M1, increases the accuracy of the task performance when compared to sham stimulation of the same area. This accuracy enhancement during active stimulation cannot be accounted for by slowed responses, as response times were not changed by stimulation. Our results indicate that left prefrontal anodal stimulation leads to an enhancement of working memory performance. Furthermore, this effect depends on the stimulation polarity and is specific to the site of stimulation. This result may be helpful to develop future interventions aiming at clinical benefits.
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            Transcranial direct current stimulation improves recognition memory in Alzheimer disease.

            To evaluate the cognitive effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporoparietal areas in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). In 10 patients with probable AD, we delivered anodal tDCS (AtDCS), cathodal tDCS (CtDCS), and sham tDCS (StDCS) over the temporoparietal areas in three sessions. In each session recognition memory and visual attention were tested at baseline (prestimulation) and 30 minutes after tDCS ended (poststimulation). After AtDCS, accuracy of the word recognition memory task increased (prestimulation: 15.5 +/- 0.9, poststimulation: 17.9 +/- 0.8, p = 0.0068) whereas after CtDCS it decreased (15.8 +/- 0.6 vs 13.2 +/- 0.9, p = 0.011) and after StDCS it remained unchanged (16.3 +/- 0.7 vs 16.0 +/- 1.0, p = 0.75). tDCS left the visual attention-reaction times unchanged. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) delivered over the temporoparietal areas can specifically affect a recognition memory performance in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Because tDCS is simple, safe and inexpensive, our finding prompts studies using repeated tDCS, in conjunction with other therapeutic interventions for treating patients with AD.
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              tDCS-enhanced motor and cognitive function in neurological diseases.

               Agnes Flöel (2014)
              Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that is now being widely used in neuroscientific and clinical research in humans. While initial studies focused on modulation of cortical excitability, the technique quickly progressed to studies on motor and cognitive functions in healthy humans and in patients with neurological diseases. In the present review we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of tDCS. In the main part, we will outline recent studies with tDCS that aimed at enhancing behavioral outcome or disease-specific symptoms in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and epilepsy, or persistent deficits after stroke. The review will close with a summary statement on the present use of tDCS in the treatment of neurological disorders, and an outlook to further developments in this realm. tDCS may be an ideal tool to be administered in parallel to intensive cognitive or motor training in neurological disease, but efficacy for the areas of activities and participation still needs to be established in controlled randomized trials. Its use in reducing disease-specific symptoms like dystonia or epileptic seizures is still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                July 2018
                July 2018
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                University of South Wales, CF371DL, Treforest, UK
                Article
                10.14236/ewic/HCI2018.231
                © Roula et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd.Proceedings of British HCI 2018. Belfast, UK.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
                HCI
                32
                Belfast, UK
                4 - 6 July 2018
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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