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      Does Adding Reinforcement of Implementation Intentions Support Behaviour Change?

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      Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI)

      Human Computer Interaction Conference

      4 - 6 July 2018

      Implementation intentions, habit formation, behaviour change intervention

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          It has been suggested that implementation intentions could help people to translate intentions into action and help them form a new habit by repeating their behavioural action consistently. However, implementation intentions remain underused. Previous studies have used reminders to strengthen implementation intentions. However, this could lead to dependency towards the reminders and hinder automaticity. So, in this experiment, we have tried a different approach by conducting a 4-week study to investigate the impact of reinforcement on implementation intentions for reporting daily mood. Unlike reminders sent when the action happens, our reinforcements were sent in advance to remind people of their implementation intentions. Our findings suggest that adding reinforcements leads to better compliance but not necessarily increased automaticity. The reinforcements also help people to remember their implementation intentions.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Goal Achievement: The Role of Intentions

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            A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface.

            The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a habit is formed, perception of contexts triggers the associated response without a mediating goal. Nonetheless, habits interface with goals. Constraining this interface, habit associations accrue slowly and do not shift appreciably with current goal states or infrequent counterhabitual responses. Given these constraints, goals can (a) direct habits by motivating repetition that leads to habit formation and by promoting exposure to cues that trigger habits, (b) be inferred from habits, and (c) interact with habits in ways that preserve the learned habit associations. Finally, the authors outline the implications of the model for habit change, especially for the self-regulation of habit cuing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
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              Self-regulation of goal setting: turning free fantasies about the future into binding goals.

              Fantasy realization theory states that when people contrast their fantasies about a desired future with reflections on present reality, a necessity to act is induced that leads to the activation and use of relevant expectations. Strong goal commitment arises in light of favorable expectations, and weak goal commitment arises in light of unfavorable expectations. To the contrary, when people only fantasize about a desired future or only reflect on present reality, expectancy-independent moderate goal commitment emerges. Four experiments pertaining to various life domains supported these hypotheses. Strength of goal commitment was assessed in cognitive (e.g., making plans), affective (e.g., felt attachment), and behavioral terms (e.g., effort expenditure, quality of performance). Implications for theories on goal setting and goal striving are discussed.

                Author and article information

                July 2018
                July 2018
                : 1-11
                [1 ] School of Computer Science

                University of Birmingham
                © Wicaksono et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of British HCI 2018. Belfast, UK.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit

                Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Belfast, UK
                4 - 6 July 2018
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Human Computer Interaction Conference
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page):
                Electronic Workshops in Computing


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