It is estimated that 1 in 3 Australian homes displays excessive dampness and mould proliferation, representing a significant threat to human health (physical and psychological). This study aims to provide a snapshot of the current indoor air quality of Australian residential buildings regarding air pollutants and biological growth via a case study. Monitoring results indicate that buildings with a high concentration of fungal spores are also more likely to present poor indoor air quality levels, high concentrations of particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) and CO2. Further, it suggests that the extensive mould damage may go inviable for too long posing a significant health hazard on people. This research suggests the need for the development of early detection strategies that could minimize the health hazard to people, thereby preventing the need for a major renovation.