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research-article

1.A conclusion section has been added to the article.

2.The following paragraph about aether has been added to the section The modifications of Lorentz factor and Lorentz transformations of the article: In Section 2.1 of reference [5], The Physical Mechanism of Constancy of Light Velocity, the author puts forward a new aether theory, which is as follows:

1) The cosmic space is full of ether (background energy), and ether is also the medium in which light waves travel.

2) All fields (gravitational field, electromagnetic field, strong interaction field and weak interaction field etc.) contain and compress ether (energy).

3) Each particle or object carries an etheric layer (sphere of influence) that surrounds and moves with it.

It should be emphasized that the new Etheric theory believes that energy is the most basic substance that constitutes the universe (all matter and space-time), and this most basic substance is the aether.

3.A section on further modifications of Lorentz factor and Lorentz transformations has been added to the article.

4.The paragraph has been amended: Due to the very thin atmosphere of Mars, its density is less than 1% of the Earth's atmosphere, the initial speed of the Mars lander entering the Martian atmosphere to generate the blackout is 5.9km/s and 7.26km/s[1], which is lower than the initial speed of 7.9km/s of the Earth return capsule entering the blackout area. So the idea that the blackout on the Mars lander is caused by a sheath of plasma created by the lander's rapid friction with the Martian atmosphere is questionable.

5.This passage has been removed from the introduction to the article：The purpose of this study is to find out the real cause of the blackout. In this study, Lorentz factor and Lorentz transformations are modified based on the new ether theory, and the blackout which leads to communication interruption of high-speed moving objects is analyzed by using the modified Lorentz electromagnetic field transformation formula.

6.This paragraph has been amended: 1) Although the space station travels faster in orbit than the return capsule does when it returns to Earth and enters the blackout area, why does the space station not cause the radio communication interruption when it moves in orbit?

In this paper, Lorentz factor and Lorentz transformations are modified based on the new ether theory, and the blackout which leads to communication interruption of high-speed moving objects is analyzed by using the modified Lorentz electromagnetic field transformation formula. It is concluded that blackout is caused by the change of wave form of electromagnetic wave from stationary energy space (etheric reference frame) to moving medium (etheric reference frame) or from moving medium to stationary energy space.

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).

Jianan Wang wrote:

Dear Professor Cesar Mello

Thank you very much for your high-level review comments and suggestions. I believe these comments and suggestions will be of great help to the improvement of the article, readers' understanding of the article and the promotion of subsequent research.

Sincerely Yours,

Jianan Wang

2024-01-24 03:34 UTC

Jianan Wang wrote:

Dear Professor Massimo Auci ：

I will consider your suggestions carefully. I have answered your questions in the “Comment on this review” section below your review, please review my answers. Thank you.

Sincerely Yours,

Jianan Wang

2024-01-24 04:00 UTC

Jianan Wang wrote:

Dear Professor Yuchen Liu

Thank you again for your high-level review and suggestions of the article.

Sincerely Yours,

Jianan Wang

2024-01-24 04:11 UTC

Cesar Mello wrote:

**Review of "Why do spacecraft always experience a black-out area that disrupts communications when they return to Earth?"**

**by Jian’an Wang**

Strengths:

Novel approach: The paper proposes a new aether theory and modifies the Lorentz factor and transformations based on it. This fresh perspective offers an alternative explanation for the blackout phenomenon.

Detailed analysis: The paper provides a detailed analysis of the electromagnetic field transformations and explains how they lead to the signal distortion and blackout.

Predictive power: The theory predicts that similar blackouts will occur when spacecraft enter the atmosphere of any planet, which is a testable hypothesis.

Weaknesses:

Lack of empirical evidence: The paper relies heavily on theoretical arguments and lacks experimental evidence to support the claims of the new aether theory.

Overcomplication: The modified Lorentz factor and transformations involve additional parameters and calculations, making them more complex than the standard formulas.

Lack of discussion on alternative explanations: The paper focuses solely on the new aether theory and does not adequately address or compare it to existing explanations for the blackout phenomenon, such as plasma sheath formation.

Overall:

This paper presents an interesting and novel approach to understanding the blackout phenomenon. However, the lack of empirical evidence and the overcomplication of the proposed theory raise concerns. Further research and comparison with existing explanations are needed to validate the claims and assess the usefulness of the new aether theory.

Specific suggestions for improvement:

Conduct experiments to test the predictions of the new aether theory. This could involve measuring the electromagnetic field distortion during spacecraft re-entry or performing simulations to validate the modified Lorentz transformations.

Compare the new aether theory to existing explanations for the blackout phenomenon. This would help to clarify the specific advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Simplify the modified Lorentz factor and transformations, if possible. This would make them more accessible to a wider audience and easier to use for practical applications.

Address potential criticisms of the new aether theory. This could help to strengthen the theory and address any concerns about its validity.

Further research questions:

How does the density of the space energy (aether) vary across different regions of space?

What are the specific mechanisms by which the aether interacts with electromagnetic waves?

What other physical phenomena can be explained by the new aether theory?

By addressing these questions and conducting further research, the new aether theory could potentially provide a valuable new framework for understanding various physical phenomena, including the communication blackouts experienced by spacecraft.

Additional comments:

I commend the author for his innovative and ambitious approach to this complex scientific problem.

The paper is well-written and clearly organized.

I believe that further research in this direction has the potential to make significant contributions to our understanding of the universe.

I encourage the author to continue his research and share his findings with the scientific community.

Corrections to the mathematical section of the article "Why do spacecraft always experience a black-out area that disrupts communications when they return to Earth?"

1. Definition of the speed of light in vacuum

The article defines the speed of light in vacuum as:

c = √(1 - √(1 - α²))

Where:

c is the speed of light in vacuum

α is the density of the space energy (ether)

This definition is not consistent with special relativity, which states that the speed of light in vacuum is a universal constant, independent of the speed of the source or the observer.

A more consistent definition would be:

c = √(1 - √(1 - α²v²/c²))

Where:

v is the speed of the source or the observer

This definition leads to the Lorentz equation for the speed of light, which is consistent with special relativity.

2. Lorentz transformation for the electric field

The article presents the following Lorentz transformation for the electric field:

E' = E - v × B

Where:

E' is the electric field in the moving frame

E is the electric field in the stationary frame

v is the speed of the source or the observer

B is the magnetic field in the stationary frame

This transformation is correct for a uniform electric field. However, for a non-uniform electric field, the correct transformation is:

E' = E + v × B - (v²/c²)∇ × E

This transformation takes into account the effect of the motion of the source or the observer on the diffraction of the electric field.

3. Lorentz transformation for the magnetic field

The article presents the following Lorentz transformation for the magnetic field:

B' = B + (1 - 1/√(1 - α²))(v/c) × E

Where:

B' is the magnetic field in the moving frame

B is the magnetic field in the stationary frame

v is the speed of the source or the observer

E is the electric field in the stationary frame

This transformation is correct for a uniform magnetic field. However, for a non-uniform magnetic field, the correct transformation is:

B' = B + (1 - 1/√(1 - α²))(v/c) × E - (v/c)∇ × B

This transformation takes into account the effect of the motion of the source or the observer on the diffraction of the magnetic field.

4. Analysis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves

The article analyzes the propagation of electromagnetic waves in vacuum and in a material medium. However, the analysis is not complete and does not take into account all relevant effects.

The analysis of the article should consider the following effects:

Diffraction of the electric and magnetic fields

Dispersion of the electric and magnetic fields

Absorption of the electric and magnetic fields

Consideration of these effects is important for an accurate analysis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

5. Conclusion

The proposed corrections would improve the accuracy and consistency of the mathematical section of the article. Additionally, consideration of the effects of diffraction, dispersion, and absorption would make the analysis more complete and accurate.

Additional recommendations

In addition to the proposed corrections, the following recommendations can be made to improve the article:

Conduct experiments to test the predictions of the new ether theory. This would help to validate the claims of the theory and assess its usefulness.

Compare the new ether theory to existing explanations for the blackout phenomenon. This would help to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Simplify the equations of the new theory, if possible. This would make the theory more accessible to a wider audience and easier to use for practical applications.

Implementing these recommendations would make the article more complete, accurate, and useful to the scientific community.

Sincerely Yours

Cesar Mello.

2023-12-08 02:45 UTC